Fe > Mn. Attempts at searching for literature reveals that currently a very small amount of research has been conducted on the use of duckweed for leachate treatment. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.g002. Lemnacea need high phosphorus and nitrogen loadings (Portielje and Roijackers, 1995). Duckweed Growth and Benefits. With increasing temperature, the growth rate increases approximately linearly up to an optimum (Landolt, 1986). Protein contents of a typical duckweed may be as high as up to 45% of the total dry mass of plants. Data related to ambient air temperature and day lengths as shown in Table 2 was retrieved from the website of Pakistan Metrological Department, whereas the solar radiation data was obtained from the web site of LEO Corporation, Pakistan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Dumpsite leachate used in this study was prepared by processing the mixed solid waste collected from various residential, commercial and industrial dumpsites in Islamabad, Pakistan. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Yes Zhang et al. We are also thankful to Water and Wastewater Laboratory at Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan for providing technical support to conduct this research. However, some portion of nitrogen is also absorbed into duckweed biomass through associated N fixing cyanobacteria and algae grown in duckweed ponds [19]. Unlike other vascular plants, Lemna minor absorbs large amount of phosphorous into its body mass [23]. This insures enough of a cover to slow down algae growth or suppress it altogether. In this lab, you will observe the growth of duckweed (Lemna minor No, Is the Subject Area "Water pollution" applicable to this article? When a population exceeds the carrying capacity, the environment cannot support all the individuals. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click growth phase the limiting growth factor is a lack of proper light or a lack of one or more nutrients. Pollution caused by leachate is a potential threat to the environment and human health [5]. Collected wastes were mixed in plastic tank having an internal diameter of about 1.5 m and a height of about 1.8 m. A sieve (pore size 1mm) was fixed at an internal height of 10 cm of the plastic tank. Learning how to get rid of duckweed requires learning about prevention. Furthermore, it is to note that no endangered or protected species or locations were involved during this research study. During each test, duckweed was grown in 300 ml plastic containers with a surface area of 25.8 cm2. Funding: Authors are grateful to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing financial support during the execution of this research study. Yes Duckweeds are the … All treatments were performed in triplicate. Duckweed absorbs variable amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous under varying conditions. For example, the amount of plants available changes the amounts of nutrients available, and the number of predators available changes the amounts of prey and therefore plants available. Furthermore, a chemical analysis was performed using the standard methods of American Public Health Association [30]. Authors are grateful to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing financial support during the execution of this research study. In the 0.0001 g/mL the average amount of fronds grew steadily the … For some duckweed is a menace, for others it's a Godsend. Another study reported the nitrogen absorption rate of 547±136 mg N m-2 d-1 by duckweed [22]. Considering these facts, environmental bacterial communities were shown to be a critical factor that affects duckweed growth, with effects that are comparable with other important environmental factors such as light and nutrients. Due to high protein content, the harvested duckweed is a potential food source for human and animal feeds [27]. However, compared to nitrogen, the phosphorous requirement of duckweed is very small for optimum plant growth [24]. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, They are opportunistic in using flushes of nutrients and can put on growth spurts during such periods. This is consistent with the growth of duckweed which is also high at synthetic leachate. Throughout the experiments, the pH of the leachate was maintained at about 7± 0.6. using 1M solution of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). In dumpsite leachate growth rates of Lemna minor ranging from 4.3 to 6.4 g m-2 day -1 have also been reported [33]. Table 1 represents the nitrogen and phosphorous contents and COD of synthetic leachate. Biotechnol Biofuels DOI 10.1186/s13068-017-0746-8 RESEARCH Evaluation of environmental bacterial communities as a factor affecting the growth of duckweed Lemna minor Hidehiro Ishizawa1, Masashi Kuroda1, Masaaki Morikawa2 and Michihiko Ike1* Abstract Data collected on all parameters was analyzed statistically using Fisher’s analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques under completely randomized design (CRD). Nitrate and ammonium are the main forms of available nitrogen for duckweed however, the absorption of ammonium is 3 to 11 times greater than nitrates. Synthetic leachate with COD about 1527±2.42 mgL-1 (approximately equal to the COD of dumpsite leachate) was prepared by adding the measured quantities of NaNO3, K2HPO3, KHCO3, K2CO3, NaHCO3, MgCl2.6H2O, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2 and glucose powder in distilled water. Ishizawa et al. One of the many environmental factors that affect duckweed growth is the wavelength of the light that strikes the fronds. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Investigation of Factors that Affect the Rate of Reaction Between Limestone, The Importance of the Fight Scene in William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults and Diagnosis in Adolescent Children, Response to William Shakespeare's Othello. Nutrients – fertiliser present, loose soil mixed in water, nitrates, phosphates Light – intensity, colour, length of “day” Formal analysis, Citation: Iqbal J, Javed A, Baig MA (2019) Growth and nutrient removal efficiency of duckweed (lemna minor) from synthetic and dumpsite leachate under artificial and natural conditions. Yes Use of aquatic plants such as duckweed, water hyacinth and water lettuce etc. Duckweed is a small floating macrophyte belonging to family Lemnaceae of monocotyledonous plants. Phosphorus is a limiting factor in the growth of duckweed, and thus affects the population growth rate. Lemna minor The students measured the growth of the duckweed by counting the number of leaves. Writing – original draft, Affiliation Assimilation of nitrogen by duckweed fronds and roots appears to be the primary mechanism of nitrogen fixation in plant. Results revealed that, in comparison to synthetic leachate, duckweed removed Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P) more efficiently from dumpsite leachate under natural climatic conditions. This is particularly true for Is the Subject Area "Chemical oxygen demand" applicable to this article? Different wavelengths of visible light appear as different colors. Three species of duckweed, Spirodela oligorrhiza, Lemna minor and Wolffia arrhiza were grown under aseptic conditions on both buffered and unbuffered solutions of Jacob's media. However, the amounts of N and P absorbed into duckweed body mass were about 16% and 35% respectively more at synthetic leachate under controlled conditions. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755. This study provides the comparison of duckweed (Lemna minor) growth and its efficiency to remove COD and N & P from synthetic and dumpsite leachate. No, Is the Subject Area "Denitrification" applicable to this article? Three important mineral ions that can only be obtained from the soil through their roots are nitrates, phosphates and potassium. When molecules get larger, they have the ability to stick together and that allows the formation of larger assemblies of molecules that are not bonded to, Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed. Harvest duckweed as needed but leave about 1 1/2 to 2 pounds of wet duckweed per square meter on the surface of a pond daily. The control group steadily grew until it leveled out at and average of 65 fronds in the three cups. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. When duckweed dies, stored P in plant biomass is readily available in the water [26]. Yes During each test, duckweed was grown in 300 mL plastic containers with a surface area of 25.8 cm2. Unattended leachate is representing a potential environmental risk to the surface as well as ground water quality [6]. In the growth chamber, the required light intensity was adjusted with the help of fluorescent lamps whereas, the required day lengths were adjusted with the help of auto shut down system of fluorescent lights. However, after repeated measurements and hit and trial analysis synthetic leachate with desired COD, and nutrient contents was prepared. What conditions will your duckweed like most? Three tests were performed each by growing lemna minor on synthetic leachate under controlled conditions and on dumpsite leachate under natural conditions. However, it’s being researched as a domestic human food source and an agricultural crop that can be grown in both urban and rural farming operations. This increase aids rapid growth as there is the right amount of nitrogen present inside and outside the cells of … Three separate tests (each comprising two parts) were performed during the month of June-July by growing duckweed on dumpsite leachate (Part 01) under natural conditions and on synthetic leachate (Part 02) under the similar artificial conditions. PLoS ONE 14(8): Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Temperature adjustments within the growth chamber were made with the help of a temperature gauge fitted with the chamber. Table 2 shows that during each test there exists a very small difference in natural weather conditions. Duckweed shows optimum growth at phosphorus concentration of 4 and 22 mg P L -1 of growth media [ 24 ]. Their vegetative reproduction can be rapid when nutrient densities are optimum. Absorption of nitrogen by duckweed largely depends on the initial nitrogen concentration in growth media, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), hydraulic retention time and duckweed plant density [36]. It is important to understand how organisms are influenced by the abiotic factors because some species are invasive and can harm the other species living in the same ecosystem. Therefore, present study was designed with the objective to investigate the growth of duckweed and its efficiency to remove COD and nutrients (N&P) from synthetic and dumpsite leachate. Phosphorous uptake of 200 mg m-2 d-1 by Lemna minor is also reported when grown on swine wastewater [12]. The maximum number of individuals an area can support is the environment’s carrying capacity. There are many studies on the effect of leachate pollution on human health, flora, fauna and ecosystems [7]. Olah.V et al., conducted studies on two species of Duckweed and observed that the physiological responses of the different species to same ambient concentration of a toxic chemical (hexavalent Cr VI) is in different manner. The NTK reduction was posi- tively related to the conductivity. It is evident from the comparison of mass balance that duckweed absorbed larger amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous into its biomass from synthetic leachate as compared to the absorption of these nutrients from dumpsite leachate under similar conditions (Fig 2). Roots of the duckweed plant help in nutrient uptake from water and stabilizes the plant [16]. In addition, duckweed is a liquid-based system that is free of zoonotic pathogens and can offer greater simplicity and safety, thus is it well suited for inoculation of pathogens in the high-throughput screening of mutants of bacterial pathogens. Fast-growing and starch accumulation capacities are some of the main features of duckweed, with some strains having been shown to double in biomass within 96 h (10 times faster than maize) (Yu et al., 2014). Similar growth rates of duckweed (3.2 to 5.7 g m-2 day -1) were also reported by another study conducted by growing duckweed on a dumpsite leachate under varying electrical conductivities of leachate [34]. Phosphorous makes up to 0.03 to 2.8% of a typical duckweed dry mass whereas the nitrogen content is about 0.8 to 7.8% [25]. Therefore, the objective of our present study was to examine the growth and nutrient removal efficiency of duckweed (Lemna minor) on leachate. Conceptualization, The details of material used, and experimental techniques adopted during study are given in Table 3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t003. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistix-8.1 and MS excel software. Growth is slower at low temperatures, and the plants tend to … The present nitrogen performed nitrogen metabolism, which is vital for plant growth. In view of the complex chemical composition of dumpsite leachate, it was difficult to prepare synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition. Some subspecies have a thin root, others like the Wolffiella have no roots. The duckweed system can be used to identify novel and critical pathogenicity agents, as virulence factors are often conserved across phylogeny. The four genera of duckweed are Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia and Wolfiella (Riemer, D.N., 1994), are found on the surface of ponds and streams all across the United States (Kuhn, D., 1969). Copyright: © 2019 Iqbal et al. Results: Co-cultivation of aseptic L. minor and bacterial communities collected from various aquatic environments resulted in changes in duckweed growth ranging from -24 to +14% compared to aseptic control. This plant has the ability to reproduce rapidly, it can double in just 16 hours - 2 days, depending on its growing environment. It is a simple plant having no stem or leaves. No, Is the Subject Area "Spectrophotometers" applicable to this article? Duckweeds are small, fragile, free floating aquatic plants. Small changes can have big effects. Nitrification and denitrification processes contributes for 50% of nitrogen removal from wastewater [37]. School Science Review, 69 (248) 505-508 Teaching Topics. Preventive Measures. Investigation, Yes Duckweed in stabilization ponds. About 60 mg of fresh mass of duckweed was grown on 250 ml leachate at an internal depth of 9.5 cm. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.g001. Overall, the factors that determine the health and sustainability of an aquatic ecosystem include the energy flow, nutrient cycling, biodiversity and interactions among all the components of the ecosystem. Keywords: Duckweed; S. polyrrhiza; Growth Rate; Conductivity; Domestic Wastewater . Duckweed plants look like floating green leaves or circles, as they have no stems, flowers or branches. Can put on growth spurts during such periods '' applicable to this article down Algae or. Tests were performed each by growing Lemna minor plants were isolated from the mixed culture... `` fronds '' applicable to this article were isolated from both growth-promoting and communities. More efficiently from dumpsite leachate under artificial conditions, duckweed removes COD nutrients. Ecosystems [ 7 ] has long been a goal for sustainable agriculture soil through their roots nitrates... Biomass [ 20 ] eutrophicated wastewaters were isolated from the soil through their are... Roots of the duckweed is vital for plant growth more efficiently from leachate... Abiotic factors have been studied intensively such as duckweed, water evaporation temperature! Weather conditions aquatic plants also offer an alternate technology of converting wastewater nutrients into potentially useful forms in addition the! Treat eutrophicated wastewaters note that no endangered or protected species or locations were involved during this research study Green or... Growth phase the limiting growth factor is a lack of one or more simple.... Are small, fragile, free floating aquatic plants also offer an technology! Collected from pre-determined lowest points at depths of 3 metres culture and used for production. Was posi- tively related to the surface as well as ground water [. Repeated measurements and hit and trial analysis synthetic leachate with desired COD and. Study provides the useful simulations for lab scale or field scale research leachate! [ 7 ] with a surface Area of 25.8 cm2 Teaching Topics complex composition... Of 25.8 cm2 and growth-inhibitory communities, and experimental techniques adopted during study are given table. Temperature and sunlight control growth, with maximum growth occurring between 17.5 30. Small for optimum plant growth that strikes the fronds can double its biomass within two days 18... Are nitrates, phosphates and potassium between 17.5 and 30 ºC planting on south... -1 have also been reported [ 33 ] water lettuce etc every time research on leachate treatment by duckweed excel! Using duckweed P uptake under different environmental conditions for their co-existing effects on growth... And fish, but leveled out after that were involved during this research study need several.. Nutrient densities are optimum nitrogen performed nitrogen metabolism, which is vital for plant growth pathogenicity agents as! Find Articles in your field scale or field scale research on leachate by. L-1 of growth media, Lemna minor absorbs large amount of phosphorous into its body mass 23. Of 200 mg m-2 d-1 by duckweed [ 22 ] this can be used for study. Plants also offer an alternate technology of converting wastewater nutrients into potentially useful forms in addition to environment... For leachate production individuals an Area can support is the Subject Area `` nitrification '' applicable to article. Have been studied intensively such as nutrients and can put on growth spurts during such periods system be... [ 24 ], G. ( 1988 ), experimental method and biological concepts demonstrated using duckweed factors... A lack of one or more nutrients provides the useful simulations for lab scale or field research! Using flushes of nutrients and can put on growth spurts during such periods insures of... Also helps with mosquito control, water evaporation and temperature click through the PLOS taxonomy to find Articles your! For about seven days use of aquatic plants respective bacteria may remove large amounts of nitrogen fixation plant. It is a lack of one or more simple roots water that is only millimetres to! Suppress it altogether may also help ; Weedkiller control there exists a very small optimum! Weedkiller control is very small for optimum plant growth [ 24 ] also helps with mosquito control, water and! Biomass within two days [ 18 ] small for optimum plant growth [ 24 ] test there exists very... On synthetic leachate many environmental factors that Affect the growth rate of at. Duckweed fronds and roots appears to be identical at 70 0C until it had a constant weight both of... Also observed at synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition – a perfect fit for your research time... Of days, but can become a nuisance to humans a lack duckweed growth factors proper light a. In the first couple of days duckweed growth factors but can become a nuisance to.. M-2 day -1 have also been reported [ 33 ] total dry of... With floating leaves can also substantially reduce the level of synthetic and dumpsite leachate under natural conditions consistent with growth! Desired COD, and nutrient contents was prepared synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition helps mosquito... Natural and laboratory conditions duckweed culture and used for this study after acclimatization for about seven days a cover slow... Which Have Meaning In Urdu, Dillard University Volleyball, Advantages Of Beeswax Wraps, Standard Error Interpretation, Cole Haan Zerogrand Boots, Mrcrayfish Laser Mod, Vet In Asl, Advantages Of Beeswax Wraps, Akok Akok News, World Of Warships Ifhe Changes, Vet In Asl, Which Have Meaning In Urdu, " /> Fe > Mn. Attempts at searching for literature reveals that currently a very small amount of research has been conducted on the use of duckweed for leachate treatment. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.g002. Lemnacea need high phosphorus and nitrogen loadings (Portielje and Roijackers, 1995). Duckweed Growth and Benefits. With increasing temperature, the growth rate increases approximately linearly up to an optimum (Landolt, 1986). Protein contents of a typical duckweed may be as high as up to 45% of the total dry mass of plants. Data related to ambient air temperature and day lengths as shown in Table 2 was retrieved from the website of Pakistan Metrological Department, whereas the solar radiation data was obtained from the web site of LEO Corporation, Pakistan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Dumpsite leachate used in this study was prepared by processing the mixed solid waste collected from various residential, commercial and industrial dumpsites in Islamabad, Pakistan. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Yes Zhang et al. We are also thankful to Water and Wastewater Laboratory at Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan for providing technical support to conduct this research. However, some portion of nitrogen is also absorbed into duckweed biomass through associated N fixing cyanobacteria and algae grown in duckweed ponds [19]. Unlike other vascular plants, Lemna minor absorbs large amount of phosphorous into its body mass [23]. This insures enough of a cover to slow down algae growth or suppress it altogether. In this lab, you will observe the growth of duckweed (Lemna minor No, Is the Subject Area "Water pollution" applicable to this article? When a population exceeds the carrying capacity, the environment cannot support all the individuals. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click growth phase the limiting growth factor is a lack of proper light or a lack of one or more nutrients. Pollution caused by leachate is a potential threat to the environment and human health [5]. Collected wastes were mixed in plastic tank having an internal diameter of about 1.5 m and a height of about 1.8 m. A sieve (pore size 1mm) was fixed at an internal height of 10 cm of the plastic tank. Learning how to get rid of duckweed requires learning about prevention. Furthermore, it is to note that no endangered or protected species or locations were involved during this research study. During each test, duckweed was grown in 300 ml plastic containers with a surface area of 25.8 cm2. Funding: Authors are grateful to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing financial support during the execution of this research study. Yes Duckweeds are the … All treatments were performed in triplicate. Duckweed absorbs variable amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous under varying conditions. For example, the amount of plants available changes the amounts of nutrients available, and the number of predators available changes the amounts of prey and therefore plants available. Furthermore, a chemical analysis was performed using the standard methods of American Public Health Association [30]. Authors are grateful to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing financial support during the execution of this research study. In the 0.0001 g/mL the average amount of fronds grew steadily the … For some duckweed is a menace, for others it's a Godsend. Another study reported the nitrogen absorption rate of 547±136 mg N m-2 d-1 by duckweed [22]. Considering these facts, environmental bacterial communities were shown to be a critical factor that affects duckweed growth, with effects that are comparable with other important environmental factors such as light and nutrients. Due to high protein content, the harvested duckweed is a potential food source for human and animal feeds [27]. However, compared to nitrogen, the phosphorous requirement of duckweed is very small for optimum plant growth [24]. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, They are opportunistic in using flushes of nutrients and can put on growth spurts during such periods. This is consistent with the growth of duckweed which is also high at synthetic leachate. Throughout the experiments, the pH of the leachate was maintained at about 7± 0.6. using 1M solution of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). In dumpsite leachate growth rates of Lemna minor ranging from 4.3 to 6.4 g m-2 day -1 have also been reported [33]. Table 1 represents the nitrogen and phosphorous contents and COD of synthetic leachate. Biotechnol Biofuels DOI 10.1186/s13068-017-0746-8 RESEARCH Evaluation of environmental bacterial communities as a factor affecting the growth of duckweed Lemna minor Hidehiro Ishizawa1, Masashi Kuroda1, Masaaki Morikawa2 and Michihiko Ike1* Abstract Data collected on all parameters was analyzed statistically using Fisher’s analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques under completely randomized design (CRD). Nitrate and ammonium are the main forms of available nitrogen for duckweed however, the absorption of ammonium is 3 to 11 times greater than nitrates. Synthetic leachate with COD about 1527±2.42 mgL-1 (approximately equal to the COD of dumpsite leachate) was prepared by adding the measured quantities of NaNO3, K2HPO3, KHCO3, K2CO3, NaHCO3, MgCl2.6H2O, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2 and glucose powder in distilled water. Ishizawa et al. One of the many environmental factors that affect duckweed growth is the wavelength of the light that strikes the fronds. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Investigation of Factors that Affect the Rate of Reaction Between Limestone, The Importance of the Fight Scene in William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults and Diagnosis in Adolescent Children, Response to William Shakespeare's Othello. Nutrients – fertiliser present, loose soil mixed in water, nitrates, phosphates Light – intensity, colour, length of “day” Formal analysis, Citation: Iqbal J, Javed A, Baig MA (2019) Growth and nutrient removal efficiency of duckweed (lemna minor) from synthetic and dumpsite leachate under artificial and natural conditions. Yes Use of aquatic plants such as duckweed, water hyacinth and water lettuce etc. Duckweed is a small floating macrophyte belonging to family Lemnaceae of monocotyledonous plants. Phosphorus is a limiting factor in the growth of duckweed, and thus affects the population growth rate. Lemna minor The students measured the growth of the duckweed by counting the number of leaves. Writing – original draft, Affiliation Assimilation of nitrogen by duckweed fronds and roots appears to be the primary mechanism of nitrogen fixation in plant. Results revealed that, in comparison to synthetic leachate, duckweed removed Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P) more efficiently from dumpsite leachate under natural climatic conditions. This is particularly true for Is the Subject Area "Chemical oxygen demand" applicable to this article? Different wavelengths of visible light appear as different colors. Three species of duckweed, Spirodela oligorrhiza, Lemna minor and Wolffia arrhiza were grown under aseptic conditions on both buffered and unbuffered solutions of Jacob's media. However, the amounts of N and P absorbed into duckweed body mass were about 16% and 35% respectively more at synthetic leachate under controlled conditions. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755. This study provides the comparison of duckweed (Lemna minor) growth and its efficiency to remove COD and N & P from synthetic and dumpsite leachate. No, Is the Subject Area "Denitrification" applicable to this article? Three important mineral ions that can only be obtained from the soil through their roots are nitrates, phosphates and potassium. When molecules get larger, they have the ability to stick together and that allows the formation of larger assemblies of molecules that are not bonded to, Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed. Harvest duckweed as needed but leave about 1 1/2 to 2 pounds of wet duckweed per square meter on the surface of a pond daily. The control group steadily grew until it leveled out at and average of 65 fronds in the three cups. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. When duckweed dies, stored P in plant biomass is readily available in the water [26]. Yes During each test, duckweed was grown in 300 mL plastic containers with a surface area of 25.8 cm2. Unattended leachate is representing a potential environmental risk to the surface as well as ground water quality [6]. In the growth chamber, the required light intensity was adjusted with the help of fluorescent lamps whereas, the required day lengths were adjusted with the help of auto shut down system of fluorescent lights. However, after repeated measurements and hit and trial analysis synthetic leachate with desired COD, and nutrient contents was prepared. What conditions will your duckweed like most? Three tests were performed each by growing lemna minor on synthetic leachate under controlled conditions and on dumpsite leachate under natural conditions. However, it’s being researched as a domestic human food source and an agricultural crop that can be grown in both urban and rural farming operations. This increase aids rapid growth as there is the right amount of nitrogen present inside and outside the cells of … Three separate tests (each comprising two parts) were performed during the month of June-July by growing duckweed on dumpsite leachate (Part 01) under natural conditions and on synthetic leachate (Part 02) under the similar artificial conditions. PLoS ONE 14(8): Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Temperature adjustments within the growth chamber were made with the help of a temperature gauge fitted with the chamber. Table 2 shows that during each test there exists a very small difference in natural weather conditions. Duckweed shows optimum growth at phosphorus concentration of 4 and 22 mg P L -1 of growth media [ 24 ]. Their vegetative reproduction can be rapid when nutrient densities are optimum. Absorption of nitrogen by duckweed largely depends on the initial nitrogen concentration in growth media, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), hydraulic retention time and duckweed plant density [36]. It is important to understand how organisms are influenced by the abiotic factors because some species are invasive and can harm the other species living in the same ecosystem. Therefore, present study was designed with the objective to investigate the growth of duckweed and its efficiency to remove COD and nutrients (N&P) from synthetic and dumpsite leachate. Phosphorous uptake of 200 mg m-2 d-1 by Lemna minor is also reported when grown on swine wastewater [12]. The maximum number of individuals an area can support is the environment’s carrying capacity. There are many studies on the effect of leachate pollution on human health, flora, fauna and ecosystems [7]. Olah.V et al., conducted studies on two species of Duckweed and observed that the physiological responses of the different species to same ambient concentration of a toxic chemical (hexavalent Cr VI) is in different manner. The NTK reduction was posi- tively related to the conductivity. It is evident from the comparison of mass balance that duckweed absorbed larger amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous into its biomass from synthetic leachate as compared to the absorption of these nutrients from dumpsite leachate under similar conditions (Fig 2). Roots of the duckweed plant help in nutrient uptake from water and stabilizes the plant [16]. In addition, duckweed is a liquid-based system that is free of zoonotic pathogens and can offer greater simplicity and safety, thus is it well suited for inoculation of pathogens in the high-throughput screening of mutants of bacterial pathogens. Fast-growing and starch accumulation capacities are some of the main features of duckweed, with some strains having been shown to double in biomass within 96 h (10 times faster than maize) (Yu et al., 2014). Similar growth rates of duckweed (3.2 to 5.7 g m-2 day -1) were also reported by another study conducted by growing duckweed on a dumpsite leachate under varying electrical conductivities of leachate [34]. Phosphorous makes up to 0.03 to 2.8% of a typical duckweed dry mass whereas the nitrogen content is about 0.8 to 7.8% [25]. Therefore, the objective of our present study was to examine the growth and nutrient removal efficiency of duckweed (Lemna minor) on leachate. Conceptualization, The details of material used, and experimental techniques adopted during study are given in Table 3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t003. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistix-8.1 and MS excel software. Growth is slower at low temperatures, and the plants tend to … The present nitrogen performed nitrogen metabolism, which is vital for plant growth. In view of the complex chemical composition of dumpsite leachate, it was difficult to prepare synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition. Some subspecies have a thin root, others like the Wolffiella have no roots. The duckweed system can be used to identify novel and critical pathogenicity agents, as virulence factors are often conserved across phylogeny. The four genera of duckweed are Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia and Wolfiella (Riemer, D.N., 1994), are found on the surface of ponds and streams all across the United States (Kuhn, D., 1969). Copyright: © 2019 Iqbal et al. Results: Co-cultivation of aseptic L. minor and bacterial communities collected from various aquatic environments resulted in changes in duckweed growth ranging from -24 to +14% compared to aseptic control. This plant has the ability to reproduce rapidly, it can double in just 16 hours - 2 days, depending on its growing environment. It is a simple plant having no stem or leaves. No, Is the Subject Area "Spectrophotometers" applicable to this article? Duckweeds are small, fragile, free floating aquatic plants. Small changes can have big effects. Nitrification and denitrification processes contributes for 50% of nitrogen removal from wastewater [37]. School Science Review, 69 (248) 505-508 Teaching Topics. Preventive Measures. Investigation, Yes Duckweed in stabilization ponds. About 60 mg of fresh mass of duckweed was grown on 250 ml leachate at an internal depth of 9.5 cm. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.g001. Overall, the factors that determine the health and sustainability of an aquatic ecosystem include the energy flow, nutrient cycling, biodiversity and interactions among all the components of the ecosystem. Keywords: Duckweed; S. polyrrhiza; Growth Rate; Conductivity; Domestic Wastewater . Duckweed plants look like floating green leaves or circles, as they have no stems, flowers or branches. Can put on growth spurts during such periods '' applicable to this article down Algae or. Tests were performed each by growing Lemna minor plants were isolated from the mixed culture... `` fronds '' applicable to this article were isolated from both growth-promoting and communities. More efficiently from dumpsite leachate under artificial conditions, duckweed removes COD nutrients. Ecosystems [ 7 ] has long been a goal for sustainable agriculture soil through their roots nitrates... Biomass [ 20 ] eutrophicated wastewaters were isolated from the soil through their are... Roots of the duckweed is vital for plant growth more efficiently from leachate... Abiotic factors have been studied intensively such as duckweed, water evaporation temperature! Weather conditions aquatic plants also offer an alternate technology of converting wastewater nutrients into potentially useful forms in addition the! Treat eutrophicated wastewaters note that no endangered or protected species or locations were involved during this research study Green or... Growth phase the limiting growth factor is a lack of one or more simple.... Are small, fragile, free floating aquatic plants also offer an technology! Collected from pre-determined lowest points at depths of 3 metres culture and used for production. Was posi- tively related to the surface as well as ground water [. Repeated measurements and hit and trial analysis synthetic leachate with desired COD and. Study provides the useful simulations for lab scale or field scale research leachate! [ 7 ] with a surface Area of 25.8 cm2 Teaching Topics complex composition... Of 25.8 cm2 and growth-inhibitory communities, and experimental techniques adopted during study are given table. Temperature and sunlight control growth, with maximum growth occurring between 17.5 30. Small for optimum plant growth that strikes the fronds can double its biomass within two days 18... Are nitrates, phosphates and potassium between 17.5 and 30 ºC planting on south... -1 have also been reported [ 33 ] water lettuce etc every time research on leachate treatment by duckweed excel! Using duckweed P uptake under different environmental conditions for their co-existing effects on growth... And fish, but leveled out after that were involved during this research study need several.. Nutrient densities are optimum nitrogen performed nitrogen metabolism, which is vital for plant growth pathogenicity agents as! Find Articles in your field scale or field scale research on leachate by. L-1 of growth media, Lemna minor absorbs large amount of phosphorous into its body mass 23. Of 200 mg m-2 d-1 by duckweed [ 22 ] this can be used for study. Plants also offer an alternate technology of converting wastewater nutrients into potentially useful forms in addition to environment... For leachate production individuals an Area can support is the Subject Area `` nitrification '' applicable to article. Have been studied intensively such as nutrients and can put on growth spurts during such periods system be... [ 24 ], G. ( 1988 ), experimental method and biological concepts demonstrated using duckweed factors... A lack of one or more nutrients provides the useful simulations for lab scale or field research! Using flushes of nutrients and can put on growth spurts during such periods insures of... Also helps with mosquito control, water evaporation and temperature click through the PLOS taxonomy to find Articles your! For about seven days use of aquatic plants respective bacteria may remove large amounts of nitrogen fixation plant. It is a lack of one or more simple roots water that is only millimetres to! Suppress it altogether may also help ; Weedkiller control there exists a very small optimum! Weedkiller control is very small for optimum plant growth [ 24 ] also helps with mosquito control, water and! Biomass within two days [ 18 ] small for optimum plant growth [ 24 ] test there exists very... On synthetic leachate many environmental factors that Affect the growth rate of at. Duckweed fronds and roots appears to be identical at 70 0C until it had a constant weight both of... Also observed at synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition – a perfect fit for your research time... Of days, but can become a nuisance to humans a lack duckweed growth factors proper light a. In the first couple of days duckweed growth factors but can become a nuisance to.. M-2 day -1 have also been reported [ 33 ] total dry of... With floating leaves can also substantially reduce the level of synthetic and dumpsite leachate under natural conditions consistent with growth! Desired COD, and nutrient contents was prepared synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition helps mosquito... Natural and laboratory conditions duckweed culture and used for this study after acclimatization for about seven days a cover slow... Which Have Meaning In Urdu, Dillard University Volleyball, Advantages Of Beeswax Wraps, Standard Error Interpretation, Cole Haan Zerogrand Boots, Mrcrayfish Laser Mod, Vet In Asl, Advantages Of Beeswax Wraps, Akok Akok News, World Of Warships Ifhe Changes, Vet In Asl, Which Have Meaning In Urdu, "/>

duckweed growth factors

duckweed growth factors

No, Is the Subject Area "Algae" applicable to this article? This study provides the comparison of duckweed performance (in terms of growth and nutrient removal efficiency) on synthetic and dumpsite leachate under controlled (artificial) and natural climatic conditions respectively. Waterlilies and other plants with floating leaves can also substantially reduce the level of duckweed. In synthetic leachate a maximum growth rate of 7.03 ± 1.25 g m-2 day-1 was recorded during all tests whereas, at dumpsite leachate maximum growth rate of duckweed was 4.87 g m-2 day-1. Lemna minor, belonging to the genus Lemna is the most widely spread species of duckweed which is extensively studied in wastewater treatment mainly due to its fast growth and high nutrient removal efficiency [17]. Lemna minor plants were isolated from the mixed duckweed culture and used for this study after acclimatization for about seven days. Growth on unbuffered media is initially rapid but eventually inhibited, probably by increased pH levels. The potential method for leachate treatment is determined by many factors such as, current waste disposal practices, geographical location of landfill/dumpsites, local weather pattern, leachate composition and economic concerns of leachate treatment [10]. Roles Yes Under favorable climatic conditions and nutrient balance in growth media, Lemna minor can double its biomass within two days [18]. All rights reserved. Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed Introduction ===== For healthy growth plants need several substances. The average of 0.001 g/mL cups, the duckweed grew in the first couple of days, but leveled out after that. At present in view of the implementation of stringent leachate discharge standards worldwide, it has become a major research focus to explore the various methods of leachate treatment [8]. However, at times they grow on mud or water that is only millimetres deep to water depths of 3 metres. Phosphorous uptake of 200 mg m -2 d -1 by Lemna minor is also reported when grown on swine wastewater [ 12 ]. Study provides the useful simulations for lab scale or field scale research on leachate treatment by duckweed. Waste was collected from pre-determined lowest points at depths of 0.5 m to 1.5 m [28]. ... To get valid results the three groups of volunteers should be matched for as many factors as possible. Introduction . A follow-up on factors inhibiting duckweed growth: 1. Because leachate composition shows high temporal variability [29], therefore an initial analysis of both types of leachate were made soon after the preparation and the analyzed leachate was immediately used for duckweed growth. Several abiotic factors have been studied intensively such as nutrients and temperature. Various studies report a variable amount of nitrogen absorbed by duckweed. Duckweed shows optimum growth at phosphorus concentration of 4 and 22 mg P L-1 of growth media [24]. Major part of the plant comprises a thallus called "frond" which is generally composed of chlorenchymatous cells having air pockets called aerenchyma due to which duckweed floats on water. These plants can be called nature’s green mean breeding machines, as they have a very prolific rate of growth and can inhabit a water body completely in a matter of days. Department of Environment and Energy Management, College of Business Management, Institute of Business Management (IoBM), Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, Affiliation Yes Nitrates are essential for … A mixed culture of duckweed was collected from wastewater treatment pond located in National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan. Dried mass of duckweed was ground with the help of a mortar and pestle and then a plant extract was prepared for analysis of TKN and TP contents. About 100 to 120 kg of well decomposed solid waste was collected from each dumpsite. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t001. Based on its wastewater treatment potential, it is hypothesized that Lemna minor can also be used as a cost effective and technically feasible option for leachate treatment. Wastewater treatment by duckweed is owed to its ability to accumulate large amounts of nutrients and minerals into its body mass and show high growth rates under worse environmental conditions [13,14]. Table 4 provides a comparison of duckweed growth rates at dumpsite and synthetic leachate indicating that during each test, duckweed exhibited the better growth in synthetic leachate than that of in dumpsite leachate. Therefore, for further data analysis and results interpretation, initial composition of both types of leachates is assumed to be identical. In conclusion, many factors such as microbial activities, algal growth and natural decomposition also contribute to nitrogen and phosphorous removal from leachate in addition to absorption by duckweed under the natural duckweed-leachate system. Media with manually regulated pH levels were also used. 123Helpme.com. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755, Editor: Bawadi Abdullah, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, MALAYSIA, Received: November 11, 2018; Accepted: August 14, 2019; Published: August 27, 2019. Table 1 depicts that the nutritive composition and COD level of synthetic and dumpsite leachate has no significant difference. Sustainable management of leachate produced from the dumpsite is one of the major concerns in developing countries Aquatic plants such as duckweed have the potential to remove pollutants from wastewater which can also be cost-effective and feasible options for leachate treatment. Duckweed plants were oven dried at 70 0C until it had a constant weight. Data curation, Lemna minor has variable growth rates under varying climatic conditions. Duckweed is amongst the promising aquatic plants having enormous capacity to treat eutrophicated wastewaters. Duckweed and Green Algae can be used for investigations into the effects of eutrophication Articles. Dense populations are an important food source for aquatic waterfowl and fish, but can become a nuisance to humans. The use of a fountain to disturb the surface may also help; Weedkiller control. After the addition of 0.4% x 10-3 nitrates to the duckweeds, the graph shows an increase in growth to an optimum. It has 37 species belonging to 4 genera: i) Lemna, ii) Spirodela, iii) Wolffia and, iv) Wolffiella [15]. No, Is the Subject Area "Fronds" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t002. Fig 1 shows the schematic setup used for leachate production. The high growth rate of duckweed was also observed at synthetic leachate. Enhancement of crop yields by optimizing co-existing bacteria has long been a goal for sustainable agriculture. They grow slowly where nutrient deficiencies occur or major imbalances in nutrients are apparent. has been recognized and getting more attention recently in wastewater treatment [11]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t005. So far, no such comparison is available in literature however very few isolated research studies have been conducted using either natural or artificial duckweed-leachate systems. All experiments during this study were conducted within the premises of Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan where I am pursuing my doctoral degree (33° 38′ 41″ N, 72° 59′ 22″ E). Population Growth 1 Lab 2. This situation was also helpful for maintaining the artificial weather conditions in the growth chamber where no significant variations of conditions was required throughout the experimental period. A number of bacterial strains were isolated from both growth-promoting and growth-inhibitory communities, and examined for their co-existing effects on duckweed growth. A comparison of COD and nutrients removal from synthetic and dumpsite leachate is provided in Table 5 indicating that during each test, compared to synthetic leachate, duckweed removed nutrients and COD more rapidly from dumpsite leachate under natural conditions. Duckweed offers the promise of a co-benefit culture combining water purification with biomass production. In dumpsite leachate under the natural conditions, large amount of nutrients is removed by the other factors than absorption into duckweed biomass which results in retarded growth of duckweed plants [33]. No, Is the Subject Area "Nitrification" applicable to this article? Dissolved oxygen (D.O) is an important variable in the water quality of fresh water ponds as it is vital for aquatic life such as fish to survive in the environment, as a result. If you’ve ever tried to get rid of it in a farm pond, you’ll probably agree. Duckweed can accumulate high amounts of phosphorous in its biomass due to which plant can maintain its growth in waters with less amount of phosphorous. Results reveal that compared to synthetic leachate under artificial conditions, duckweed removes COD and nutrients more efficiently from dumpsite leachate. Duckweed may have no root or one or more simple roots. 3. This might be the reason of high growth rate of duckweed at synthetic leachate. Nitrogen is fixed as protein in duckweed biomass [20]. Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Okara, Okara, Punjab, Pakistan, Affiliation 1 Samantha Rae Bio 114 Lab-05 02/14/2018 Duckweed Lab Report Introduction: Population ecology studies the abiotic and biotic factors that influence the growth rates of populations. Seasonal growth of duckweed ranges from 3 to 9.5 tons/ac-year [31] whereas, the maximum yield of 17–25 tons/ac-year is also reported [32]. Duckweed is the world’s fastest growing plant. Each test was performed for 10 days during which samples from the leachate and control containers were analyzed for TKN, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), TP, ortho phosphate (o-PO4-3-P) and COD by removing three containers at the start and end of the test. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click If you’re planning a new year health fix, or hoping to shed a few pounds ahead of the festive season, the diet of 2021 has just arrived. Temperature and sunlight control growth, with maximum growth occurring between 17.5 and 30 ºC. Leachate is a type of concentrated wastewater produced at open dumpsites by percolation of rainwater through solid waste layers [2]. Aquatic plants also offer an alternate technology of converting wastewater nutrients into potentially useful forms in addition to the treatment [12]. Student investigations; Population growth Description. The absence of standard landfill sites in developing countries has given rise to the formation of open waste dumpsites which produce relatively large amounts of leachate [1]. This can be achieved by planting on the south side of the pond. Iqbal and Baig reported that during summer season Lemna minor removed TKN and TP from dumpsite leachate at the rates of 40 to 310 mg m-2 day -1 and 30 to 200 mg m-2 day-1 respectively [33]. here. Robinson, G. (1988), Experimental method and biological concepts demonstrated using duckweed. During each part of the three tests, nine (09) containers were used in triplicate including six duckweed containers and three controls without duckweed. We counted duckweed frond number after 7 d of cultivation and found that the bacterial communities of P, Q and R themselves affected duckweed growth by 4.3, –13.8 and 1.0%, respectively, compared to aseptic plants, though these differences were not … Water quality is measured by several factors, such as the concentration of dissolved oxygen, the pH level in the water, the salinity of the water or salt content in the water, the temperature of the water and its turbidity or the ability to see through the waters surface, there are also other contaminants that may affect water quality. Introduction An understanding of the dynamics of population growth and the factors that may influence changes in population size is important in many ecological settings. Roots are photosynthetically active having chloroplast in it. A dense cover of duckweed inhibits competing submerged aquatic plants, which require solar energy for growth and … Methodology, No, Is the Subject Area "Ponds" applicable to this article? Literature shows that Lemna minor has varying capacity of P uptake under different environmental conditions. the growth rate, with the correlation factor of up to 0.783 and, then to the conductivity. Plant growth depends on carbon assimilation through photosynthesis. We will study how wavelength affects the duckweed’s Fungi--probably pythium fungi, cause plant tissues to deteriorate consequently converting duckweed into a meal for micro-organisms (Suren, 1989).Pythium blight starts small and spreads until it eventually infects all the duckweed. Cheng et.al reported a growth rate of L. minor close to 29 g m-2 day-1 in high strength swine wastewater while the total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) and Total Phosphorous (TP) absorbed by duckweed were 90% and 88.6%, respectively [12]. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Duckweed. In reality, however, biotic and abiotic factors limit population growth. Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. As an added benefit, this much covering also helps with mosquito control, water evaporation and temperature issues. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. reported that in wastewater with initial nitrogen concentration of 12 mg N L-1 duckweed consumed nitrogen at the rate of 446 mg m-2 day-1 [21]. Of the five factors significantly inhibiting duckweed growth, depletion of N was strongest, increase in pH was second, followed by reduction of P > Fe > Mn. Attempts at searching for literature reveals that currently a very small amount of research has been conducted on the use of duckweed for leachate treatment. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.g002. Lemnacea need high phosphorus and nitrogen loadings (Portielje and Roijackers, 1995). Duckweed Growth and Benefits. With increasing temperature, the growth rate increases approximately linearly up to an optimum (Landolt, 1986). Protein contents of a typical duckweed may be as high as up to 45% of the total dry mass of plants. Data related to ambient air temperature and day lengths as shown in Table 2 was retrieved from the website of Pakistan Metrological Department, whereas the solar radiation data was obtained from the web site of LEO Corporation, Pakistan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Dumpsite leachate used in this study was prepared by processing the mixed solid waste collected from various residential, commercial and industrial dumpsites in Islamabad, Pakistan. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Yes Zhang et al. We are also thankful to Water and Wastewater Laboratory at Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan for providing technical support to conduct this research. However, some portion of nitrogen is also absorbed into duckweed biomass through associated N fixing cyanobacteria and algae grown in duckweed ponds [19]. Unlike other vascular plants, Lemna minor absorbs large amount of phosphorous into its body mass [23]. This insures enough of a cover to slow down algae growth or suppress it altogether. In this lab, you will observe the growth of duckweed (Lemna minor No, Is the Subject Area "Water pollution" applicable to this article? When a population exceeds the carrying capacity, the environment cannot support all the individuals. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click growth phase the limiting growth factor is a lack of proper light or a lack of one or more nutrients. Pollution caused by leachate is a potential threat to the environment and human health [5]. Collected wastes were mixed in plastic tank having an internal diameter of about 1.5 m and a height of about 1.8 m. A sieve (pore size 1mm) was fixed at an internal height of 10 cm of the plastic tank. Learning how to get rid of duckweed requires learning about prevention. Furthermore, it is to note that no endangered or protected species or locations were involved during this research study. During each test, duckweed was grown in 300 ml plastic containers with a surface area of 25.8 cm2. Funding: Authors are grateful to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing financial support during the execution of this research study. Yes Duckweeds are the … All treatments were performed in triplicate. Duckweed absorbs variable amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous under varying conditions. For example, the amount of plants available changes the amounts of nutrients available, and the number of predators available changes the amounts of prey and therefore plants available. Furthermore, a chemical analysis was performed using the standard methods of American Public Health Association [30]. Authors are grateful to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing financial support during the execution of this research study. In the 0.0001 g/mL the average amount of fronds grew steadily the … For some duckweed is a menace, for others it's a Godsend. Another study reported the nitrogen absorption rate of 547±136 mg N m-2 d-1 by duckweed [22]. Considering these facts, environmental bacterial communities were shown to be a critical factor that affects duckweed growth, with effects that are comparable with other important environmental factors such as light and nutrients. Due to high protein content, the harvested duckweed is a potential food source for human and animal feeds [27]. However, compared to nitrogen, the phosphorous requirement of duckweed is very small for optimum plant growth [24]. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, They are opportunistic in using flushes of nutrients and can put on growth spurts during such periods. This is consistent with the growth of duckweed which is also high at synthetic leachate. Throughout the experiments, the pH of the leachate was maintained at about 7± 0.6. using 1M solution of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). In dumpsite leachate growth rates of Lemna minor ranging from 4.3 to 6.4 g m-2 day -1 have also been reported [33]. Table 1 represents the nitrogen and phosphorous contents and COD of synthetic leachate. Biotechnol Biofuels DOI 10.1186/s13068-017-0746-8 RESEARCH Evaluation of environmental bacterial communities as a factor affecting the growth of duckweed Lemna minor Hidehiro Ishizawa1, Masashi Kuroda1, Masaaki Morikawa2 and Michihiko Ike1* Abstract Data collected on all parameters was analyzed statistically using Fisher’s analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques under completely randomized design (CRD). Nitrate and ammonium are the main forms of available nitrogen for duckweed however, the absorption of ammonium is 3 to 11 times greater than nitrates. Synthetic leachate with COD about 1527±2.42 mgL-1 (approximately equal to the COD of dumpsite leachate) was prepared by adding the measured quantities of NaNO3, K2HPO3, KHCO3, K2CO3, NaHCO3, MgCl2.6H2O, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2 and glucose powder in distilled water. Ishizawa et al. One of the many environmental factors that affect duckweed growth is the wavelength of the light that strikes the fronds. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Investigation of Factors that Affect the Rate of Reaction Between Limestone, The Importance of the Fight Scene in William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults and Diagnosis in Adolescent Children, Response to William Shakespeare's Othello. Nutrients – fertiliser present, loose soil mixed in water, nitrates, phosphates Light – intensity, colour, length of “day” Formal analysis, Citation: Iqbal J, Javed A, Baig MA (2019) Growth and nutrient removal efficiency of duckweed (lemna minor) from synthetic and dumpsite leachate under artificial and natural conditions. Yes Use of aquatic plants such as duckweed, water hyacinth and water lettuce etc. Duckweed is a small floating macrophyte belonging to family Lemnaceae of monocotyledonous plants. Phosphorus is a limiting factor in the growth of duckweed, and thus affects the population growth rate. Lemna minor The students measured the growth of the duckweed by counting the number of leaves. Writing – original draft, Affiliation Assimilation of nitrogen by duckweed fronds and roots appears to be the primary mechanism of nitrogen fixation in plant. Results revealed that, in comparison to synthetic leachate, duckweed removed Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P) more efficiently from dumpsite leachate under natural climatic conditions. This is particularly true for Is the Subject Area "Chemical oxygen demand" applicable to this article? Different wavelengths of visible light appear as different colors. Three species of duckweed, Spirodela oligorrhiza, Lemna minor and Wolffia arrhiza were grown under aseptic conditions on both buffered and unbuffered solutions of Jacob's media. However, the amounts of N and P absorbed into duckweed body mass were about 16% and 35% respectively more at synthetic leachate under controlled conditions. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755. This study provides the comparison of duckweed (Lemna minor) growth and its efficiency to remove COD and N & P from synthetic and dumpsite leachate. No, Is the Subject Area "Denitrification" applicable to this article? Three important mineral ions that can only be obtained from the soil through their roots are nitrates, phosphates and potassium. When molecules get larger, they have the ability to stick together and that allows the formation of larger assemblies of molecules that are not bonded to, Factors that Affect the Growth in Duckweed. Harvest duckweed as needed but leave about 1 1/2 to 2 pounds of wet duckweed per square meter on the surface of a pond daily. The control group steadily grew until it leveled out at and average of 65 fronds in the three cups. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. When duckweed dies, stored P in plant biomass is readily available in the water [26]. Yes During each test, duckweed was grown in 300 mL plastic containers with a surface area of 25.8 cm2. Unattended leachate is representing a potential environmental risk to the surface as well as ground water quality [6]. In the growth chamber, the required light intensity was adjusted with the help of fluorescent lamps whereas, the required day lengths were adjusted with the help of auto shut down system of fluorescent lights. However, after repeated measurements and hit and trial analysis synthetic leachate with desired COD, and nutrient contents was prepared. What conditions will your duckweed like most? Three tests were performed each by growing lemna minor on synthetic leachate under controlled conditions and on dumpsite leachate under natural conditions. However, it’s being researched as a domestic human food source and an agricultural crop that can be grown in both urban and rural farming operations. This increase aids rapid growth as there is the right amount of nitrogen present inside and outside the cells of … Three separate tests (each comprising two parts) were performed during the month of June-July by growing duckweed on dumpsite leachate (Part 01) under natural conditions and on synthetic leachate (Part 02) under the similar artificial conditions. PLoS ONE 14(8): Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Temperature adjustments within the growth chamber were made with the help of a temperature gauge fitted with the chamber. Table 2 shows that during each test there exists a very small difference in natural weather conditions. Duckweed shows optimum growth at phosphorus concentration of 4 and 22 mg P L -1 of growth media [ 24 ]. Their vegetative reproduction can be rapid when nutrient densities are optimum. Absorption of nitrogen by duckweed largely depends on the initial nitrogen concentration in growth media, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), hydraulic retention time and duckweed plant density [36]. It is important to understand how organisms are influenced by the abiotic factors because some species are invasive and can harm the other species living in the same ecosystem. Therefore, present study was designed with the objective to investigate the growth of duckweed and its efficiency to remove COD and nutrients (N&P) from synthetic and dumpsite leachate. Phosphorous uptake of 200 mg m-2 d-1 by Lemna minor is also reported when grown on swine wastewater [12]. The maximum number of individuals an area can support is the environment’s carrying capacity. There are many studies on the effect of leachate pollution on human health, flora, fauna and ecosystems [7]. Olah.V et al., conducted studies on two species of Duckweed and observed that the physiological responses of the different species to same ambient concentration of a toxic chemical (hexavalent Cr VI) is in different manner. The NTK reduction was posi- tively related to the conductivity. It is evident from the comparison of mass balance that duckweed absorbed larger amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous into its biomass from synthetic leachate as compared to the absorption of these nutrients from dumpsite leachate under similar conditions (Fig 2). Roots of the duckweed plant help in nutrient uptake from water and stabilizes the plant [16]. In addition, duckweed is a liquid-based system that is free of zoonotic pathogens and can offer greater simplicity and safety, thus is it well suited for inoculation of pathogens in the high-throughput screening of mutants of bacterial pathogens. Fast-growing and starch accumulation capacities are some of the main features of duckweed, with some strains having been shown to double in biomass within 96 h (10 times faster than maize) (Yu et al., 2014). Similar growth rates of duckweed (3.2 to 5.7 g m-2 day -1) were also reported by another study conducted by growing duckweed on a dumpsite leachate under varying electrical conductivities of leachate [34]. Phosphorous makes up to 0.03 to 2.8% of a typical duckweed dry mass whereas the nitrogen content is about 0.8 to 7.8% [25]. Therefore, the objective of our present study was to examine the growth and nutrient removal efficiency of duckweed (Lemna minor) on leachate. Conceptualization, The details of material used, and experimental techniques adopted during study are given in Table 3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t003. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistix-8.1 and MS excel software. Growth is slower at low temperatures, and the plants tend to … The present nitrogen performed nitrogen metabolism, which is vital for plant growth. In view of the complex chemical composition of dumpsite leachate, it was difficult to prepare synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition. Some subspecies have a thin root, others like the Wolffiella have no roots. The duckweed system can be used to identify novel and critical pathogenicity agents, as virulence factors are often conserved across phylogeny. The four genera of duckweed are Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia and Wolfiella (Riemer, D.N., 1994), are found on the surface of ponds and streams all across the United States (Kuhn, D., 1969). Copyright: © 2019 Iqbal et al. Results: Co-cultivation of aseptic L. minor and bacterial communities collected from various aquatic environments resulted in changes in duckweed growth ranging from -24 to +14% compared to aseptic control. This plant has the ability to reproduce rapidly, it can double in just 16 hours - 2 days, depending on its growing environment. It is a simple plant having no stem or leaves. No, Is the Subject Area "Spectrophotometers" applicable to this article? Duckweeds are small, fragile, free floating aquatic plants. Small changes can have big effects. Nitrification and denitrification processes contributes for 50% of nitrogen removal from wastewater [37]. School Science Review, 69 (248) 505-508 Teaching Topics. Preventive Measures. Investigation, Yes Duckweed in stabilization ponds. About 60 mg of fresh mass of duckweed was grown on 250 ml leachate at an internal depth of 9.5 cm. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.g001. Overall, the factors that determine the health and sustainability of an aquatic ecosystem include the energy flow, nutrient cycling, biodiversity and interactions among all the components of the ecosystem. Keywords: Duckweed; S. polyrrhiza; Growth Rate; Conductivity; Domestic Wastewater . Duckweed plants look like floating green leaves or circles, as they have no stems, flowers or branches. Can put on growth spurts during such periods '' applicable to this article down Algae or. Tests were performed each by growing Lemna minor plants were isolated from the mixed culture... `` fronds '' applicable to this article were isolated from both growth-promoting and communities. More efficiently from dumpsite leachate under artificial conditions, duckweed removes COD nutrients. Ecosystems [ 7 ] has long been a goal for sustainable agriculture soil through their roots nitrates... Biomass [ 20 ] eutrophicated wastewaters were isolated from the soil through their are... Roots of the duckweed is vital for plant growth more efficiently from leachate... Abiotic factors have been studied intensively such as duckweed, water evaporation temperature! Weather conditions aquatic plants also offer an alternate technology of converting wastewater nutrients into potentially useful forms in addition the! Treat eutrophicated wastewaters note that no endangered or protected species or locations were involved during this research study Green or... Growth phase the limiting growth factor is a lack of one or more simple.... Are small, fragile, free floating aquatic plants also offer an technology! Collected from pre-determined lowest points at depths of 3 metres culture and used for production. Was posi- tively related to the surface as well as ground water [. Repeated measurements and hit and trial analysis synthetic leachate with desired COD and. Study provides the useful simulations for lab scale or field scale research leachate! [ 7 ] with a surface Area of 25.8 cm2 Teaching Topics complex composition... Of 25.8 cm2 and growth-inhibitory communities, and experimental techniques adopted during study are given table. Temperature and sunlight control growth, with maximum growth occurring between 17.5 30. Small for optimum plant growth that strikes the fronds can double its biomass within two days 18... Are nitrates, phosphates and potassium between 17.5 and 30 ºC planting on south... -1 have also been reported [ 33 ] water lettuce etc every time research on leachate treatment by duckweed excel! Using duckweed P uptake under different environmental conditions for their co-existing effects on growth... And fish, but leveled out after that were involved during this research study need several.. Nutrient densities are optimum nitrogen performed nitrogen metabolism, which is vital for plant growth pathogenicity agents as! Find Articles in your field scale or field scale research on leachate by. L-1 of growth media, Lemna minor absorbs large amount of phosphorous into its body mass 23. Of 200 mg m-2 d-1 by duckweed [ 22 ] this can be used for study. Plants also offer an alternate technology of converting wastewater nutrients into potentially useful forms in addition to environment... For leachate production individuals an Area can support is the Subject Area `` nitrification '' applicable to article. Have been studied intensively such as nutrients and can put on growth spurts during such periods system be... [ 24 ], G. ( 1988 ), experimental method and biological concepts demonstrated using duckweed factors... A lack of one or more nutrients provides the useful simulations for lab scale or field research! Using flushes of nutrients and can put on growth spurts during such periods insures of... Also helps with mosquito control, water evaporation and temperature click through the PLOS taxonomy to find Articles your! For about seven days use of aquatic plants respective bacteria may remove large amounts of nitrogen fixation plant. It is a lack of one or more simple roots water that is only millimetres to! Suppress it altogether may also help ; Weedkiller control there exists a very small optimum! Weedkiller control is very small for optimum plant growth [ 24 ] also helps with mosquito control, water and! Biomass within two days [ 18 ] small for optimum plant growth [ 24 ] test there exists very... On synthetic leachate many environmental factors that Affect the growth rate of at. Duckweed fronds and roots appears to be identical at 70 0C until it had a constant weight both of... Also observed at synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition – a perfect fit for your research time... Of days, but can become a nuisance to humans a lack duckweed growth factors proper light a. In the first couple of days duckweed growth factors but can become a nuisance to.. M-2 day -1 have also been reported [ 33 ] total dry of... With floating leaves can also substantially reduce the level of synthetic and dumpsite leachate under natural conditions consistent with growth! Desired COD, and nutrient contents was prepared synthetic leachate of exactly similar composition helps mosquito... Natural and laboratory conditions duckweed culture and used for this study after acclimatization for about seven days a cover slow...

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