Variations in color largely reflect concentrations of anthocyanins. Plant Type: Tree. In the hypothesized phylogeny, the 'cinnabarina/cardinalis' pair is sister to the 'lewisii/erubescens' pair.  Genus members are also found in Baja California, Alaska, British Columbia, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and to a lesser extent the midwestern states, northeastern states, Canada, and Latin America. Monkey is a common name that may refer to groups or species of mammals, in part, the simians of infraorder Simiiformes. The name salep has been claimed to come from the Arabic expression ḥasyu al-tha‘lab, "fox testicles", but it appears more likely the name comes directly from the Arabic name saḥlab. "Conspicuous Problems and Interesting Directions in Monkeyflower Sect. Erythranthe (Spach) Greene, Bull. … Purple Giant Hyssop. , A large number of the species grow in moist to wet soils with some growing even in shallow water. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. The entire plant is edible, but reported to be very salty and bitter unless well cooked. , Charles Darwin's 1876 study of inbreeding depression and self-fertility in South American species was a progenitor for the study of Erythranthe biology. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. It was long considered to be in the family Scrophulariaceae, but is now placed in Phyrmaceae, primarily on the basis of DNA evidence. , Diplacus, Erythranthe, and Mimulus are subject to a very similar set of pests and diseases. Red-hot cat tail (Engl.) It was formerly known as Mimulus guttatus. Subordinate Taxa. Erythranthe guttata, with the common names seep monkeyflowerand common yellow monkeyflower, is a yellow bee-pollinatedannual or perennial plant. , Before recognition of E. cinnabarina as a species, E. lewisii was interpreted to be the sister of E. cardinalis. Before the 2012 restructuring, two large groups of species had long been recognized in the genus Mimulus as it was traditionally defined, with the largest group of species in western North America, and a second group with center of diversity in Australia. 1885. This is in contrast to Platyrrhini, which comes from the Latin word for “broad nosed,” a reference to the more flattened nostrils of this class of monkey. Genus: Catalpa. The scientific name of this plant was recently changed from Mimulus guttatus to Erythranthe guttata. Several are cultivated as orna… Common Name: Scarlet monkey flower: Scientific Name: Mimulus cardinalis: Family Name: Scrophulariaceae f.) Kuntze Philippine medusa (Engl.) any of various plants belonging to the genus Mimulus, of the figwort family, as M. cardinalis(scarlet monkey flower), having spotted flowers that resemble a face. In 1885, American botanist Edward Lee Greene classified Erythranthe as a section of Mimulus while adding E. lewisii and E. F Buntot-pusa (Tag.) Mimulus sect. French names: Mimule à fleurs entrouvertes Family: Lopseed Family (Phrymaceae), (Figwort Family (Scrophulariaceae)) Flowers: Summer; Blue/Violet; Irregular flowers Leaves: Opposite/Whorled, Simple Height: 45-90 cm (17-35 in) Habitat: Wet Areas Grows in Sun/Shade: Sun Books: Newcomb's Wildflower Guide: 100 Member species are usually annuals or herbaceous perennials.  In the 2012 restructuring of Mimulus by Barker et al., based largely upon DNA evidence, seven species were left in Mimulus as strictly defined; Erythranthe was greatly enlarged to include 111 species, based upon axile placentation and long pedicels, 46 placed into Diplacus (species with parietal placentation and sessile flowers), two placed in Uvedalia, and one each placed in Elacholoma, Mimetanthe, and Thyridia. , Erythranthe has been listed as one of the 38 plants that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. , Removal of Mimulus from family Scrophulariaceae has been supported by studies of chloroplast DNA first published in the mid-1990s. Molecular data show Erythranthe and Diplacus to be distinct evolutionary lines that are distinct from Mimulus as strictly defined. Flower Shape, Flower Colour and Pollinator Preference in Chilean, "A Taxonomic Conspectus of Phyrmaceae: A Narrowed Circumscription for, "Speciation by genome duplication: Repeated origins and genomic composition of the recently formed allopolyploid species Mimulus peregrinus", "Whatever happened to the Scrophulariaceae? Other common names: Monkey Flower.  All of the American genera are still referred to as "monkey-flowers". Blades are 0.5–2.5 cm (0.2–1.0 in) long. Relationships among the apparently closely related E. tilingii, E. minor, and E. caespitosa are not clearly understood. The genus has become a model system "for studies of evolutionary and ecological functional genomics ... [as it] ... contains a wide array of phenotypic, ecological and genomic diversity.  They are called monkey-flowers because some species have flowers shaped like a monkey's face. Leaves are opposite, round to oval, usually coarsely and irregularly toothed or lobed. Scientific names or Binomial Nomenclature is a scientific process wherein entities such as plants, animals, living entities are named and they are derived from Latin. The juice from the leaves was used as a poultice for mild skin irritations and burns. Mimulus ringens L. – Allegheny monkeyflower. The Mimulus spp. In the latter group, there are only two species: Mimulus ringens (Monkey Flower) and Mimulus alatus (Winged Monkey Flower). Phrymaceae. , Erythranthe guttata is the most widespread of the genus Erythranthe and its characteristics are fairly representative of the genus. vosnesenskii. In the past, about 150 species were placed in this genus, most of which have since been assigned to other genera, the majority to genus Erythranthe. Evidence tentatively indicates that the perennials evolved from annual ancestors, although some evidence has been interpreted to indicate that E. nasuta evolved from E. guttata in central California between 500,000 and 200,000 years ago and since then become primarily a self-pollinator.  The genus Phryma (comprising only a single species), for which the family is named, is considerably different in morphology from all of the monkey-flowers. The leaves are opposite and have a few prominent upper veins. , Many issues remain in Erythranthe taxonomy. E. lewisii is pollinated by bees, primarily Bombus and Osmia, which feed on its nectar and transfer its pollen. They are not very drought resistant, but many of the species now classified as Diplacus are. Family. , In horticulture, several species, cultivars and hybrids are used. Both overall plant size and corolla size vary greatly throughout the genus. In addition to the Sticky variety, several other species of this plant also grace our mountains. Mimulus sect. There have been two separate transformations to hummingbird pollination. , Over 80% of Erythranthe species are found in western North America, especially California, Oregon, and Washington. Sometimes dwarfed, it may be hairless or have some hairs.  Because of their wide range and many variations, the most important are those derived from E. gutatta and E. Diplacus was segregated from Mimulus as a separate genus at the same time. The orchid genus Dracula, abbreviated as Drac in horticultural trade, consists of 118 species native to Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. It is now clear that E. cinnabarina and E. cardinalis are sister species and that E. lewisii and E. erubescens are sister species. Although it is fully interfertile with its sister species E. cardinalis, the two do not interbreed in the wild, a difference ascribed primarily to pollinator differences; E. cardinalis is pollinated by hummingbirds, especially Calypte anna and Selasphorus rufus. The most common color by far is a peach or light salmon color. , Erythranthe species tend to concentrate sodium chloride and other salts absorbed from the soils in which they grow in their leaves and stem tissues. Mimulus remains as a small genus of eastern North America and the Southern Hemisphere. Corollas are deciduous, relatively large (tube-throat 8–42 mm (0.3–1.7 in) long), and strongly red to purplish, magentarose, pink, or white, rarely yellow. The calyx has five lobes that are much shorter than the flower. This species is easily propagated by cutting. Diplacus is clearly derived from within Mimulus, broadly defined, and was not usually considered to be a separate genus. E. guttata is 5–80 cm (2–31 in) tall with disproportionately large 5–20 mm (0.2–0.8 in) long, tubular flowers. utahensis.  The fruit is a two-valved capsule 1 cm (0.4 in) long, containing many seeds. Pollination is mostly by either bees or hummingbirds. The fruits are capsules. , Views on the evolutionary position of the monkey-flower species have changed. The … In the latter form, roots may develop at lower leaf nodes. Diplacus aurantiacus, the sticky monkey-flower or orange bush monkey-flower, is a flowering plant that grows in a subshrub form, native to southwestern North America from southwestern Oregon south through most of California.It is a member of the lopseed family, Phrymaceae.It was formerly known as Mimulus aurantiacus. The stem of Erythranthe can be either smooth or hairy, and this is known in a few species to be a trait determined by a simple allelic difference. Mimulus aurantiacus Curtis. It has disproportionately large, 20 to 40 mm long, tubular flowers. Pollination changes are highly affected by changes in flower morphology.  Some species of Erythranthe are annuals, such as Erythranthe guttata, and some are perennials, such as Erythranthe nasuta. Scientific Name. , Attempts at crossing species, whether from different sections or within the same section, of Erythranthe are not always successful. , Erythranthe lewisii is a model system for studying pollinator-based reproductive isolation. Ageratina altissima. Chromosomal issues may affect the classification of some species: E. corallina, E. guttata, E. nasuta, E. tilingii, and E. Mimulus ringens var. It is an annual herb that blooms from April–June with a preference for shady and moist dense habitats. The pests these genera are susceptible to include: gall midges, golden mealybugs, thrips, and seed bugs. Plants with dark red flowers are occasional encountered, as are plants with orange to orange-pink, flowers. , Erythranthe guttata is pollinated by bees, such as Bombus impatiens. The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Mimulus ringens . Common name: Common Yellow Monkeyflower, Seep Monkey Flower Latin name: Mimulus guttatus. The #flower is white on the inside with a brown band on the outside. The similarity in appearance to testes naturally accounts for salep being considered an aphrodisiac. In the 2012 restructuring of Mimulus by Barker, et al., based largely upon DNA evidence, seven species were left in Mimulus, 111 placed into Erythranthe (species with axile placentation and long pedicels), 46 placed into Diplacus (species with parietal placentation and sessile flowers), two placed in Uvedalia, and one each placed in Elacholoma, Mimetanthe, and Thyridia. , "A Taxonomic Conspectus of Phrymaceae: A Narrowed Circumscription for, "Speciation by genome duplication: Repeated origins and genomic composition of the recently formed allopolyploid species, Mimulus Database - for genetics researchers, Mimulus Genome Browser - for genetics researchers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mimulus&oldid=992863758, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 14:35. `` Aceae '' is Latin for `` a family '' or `` a group '' species found the! 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