.05, women: β = .20, t = 5.80, p < .001, sex × physical health interaction: t = 2.66, p < .01) and number of friends (men: β = .05, t = 1.17, p = .241, women: β = .16, t = 4.61, p < .001, sex × number of friends interaction: t = 2.54, p < .01) were more strongly associated with life satisfaction among women who spent between 1 and 14 years of their childhood living with a single mother when compared to their male counterparts. Often times the single working parents lacks parent–child relationship because they lack adequate time to help their children deal with the frustration of having only one parent present in the home. Again the effect was somewhat stronger for participants who lived with a single mother for their first 15 years compared to their counterparts whose parents separated at some point during childhood. Respondents’ partnership status was coded (with partner was coded 1.0, no partner was coded 0.0) and collapsed into a mean score to represent the respondent’s general relationship status across the years they reported their life satisfaction. Social network status was measured in the years 2003, 2008, and 2013. single parent family before reaching age 18. The effect sizes for the difference in life satisfaction between the two groups reared by a single mother and the group reared by both parents were in the small range (1–14 years: d = 0.10 p < .001, entire first 15 years: d = 0.19, p < .001). Today we see all sorts of single parent families: headed by mothers, fathers, and even by a grandparent raising their grandchildren. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. In the present study it was assessed by the number of visits to the doctor, while more objective measures of physical health such as a doctor’s examinations or physical fitness tests might have revealed different findings. The scientific use file of the SOEP with anonymous microdata is made available free of charge to universities and research institutes for research and teaching purposes. Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Adults" applicable to this article? A second explanation for finding no differences between the FRG and the GDR is that our respondents who grew up in the GDR responded to the study many years after the breakdown of the socialist state of the GDR in 1990. First, we compared the variance explained by childhood family settings (only controlling age, age2, age3, and sex) with the variance that childhood family settings explained after the control variables of model 1 (childhood SES) had been entered to the regression model. Affiliation In rare cases, however, participants also did not know their parents’ occupation. Effects of the breakup on children's school performance and peer relations. 1B. According to Amato’s research, sociologists warn that many children of single parents are born into undesirable circumstances. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click At any one point in time, the research found, 24 percent of families in the UK are headed by single parents. Over the same six-year window, one in seven single parents will get married or start cohabiting – and in three-quarters of cases it's with the biological parent of their child. Therefore, signing a data distribution contract is a precondition for working with SOEP data. 4. Life satisfaction, occupational prestige and net income were standardized; employment status, physical health (number of doctor visits, reverse coded), number of friends, visits to/from family, partnership status, and having been divorced were centered. In a recent Psychology Today article, “One Parent Can Do Just as Good a Job as Two, Women Say,” Bella DePaulo shared findings from Family Story’s national survey of about 1,000 women. No, Is the Subject Area "Social systems" applicable to this article? Single parents have higher levels of mental health problems, which could result partly from the stress of trying to balance the needs of employment, home responsibilities, child rearing, and interactions with the child's school with limited time, personal, and social support (Cairney, 2003). Single-parent families are determined by the sex of the "primary carer," responsible for the children the majority of the time, and they can … Finally, economic deprivation also increases the likelihood of these children to enter careers with poor socio-economic prospects and to show poor social integration when they reach early adulthood [5]. Disruptions of extended family relationships. Intercorrelations of all study variables are depicted in S1 Table. Young maternal age and maternal single status have been reported to increase the risk for adverse outcomes for both mother and child. In most circumstances, it occurs after separation or divorce and the mother becomes the primary caregiver as the custodial parent, and the father becomes a secondary giver as the noncustodial parent. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179639.g002. western oriented FRG or socialist GDR) was found. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, This hopelessness and struggle with life is real, causing stress, frustration, and tension. A third pathway can be summarized as the ‘missing-father hypothesis.’ In popular science, it has been discussed that children need both a mother and a father, presuming that fathering involves distinct and necessary qualities which are particularly important for gender identity formation in boys (e.g., [14, 15]). Young parents who become single at early stages in marriage may face problems of making new relationships as children may not easily welcome their new engagements. A single parent may lack the opportunity to compare ideas and discuss solutions to problems. Although the importance of studying the long-term consequences of single parenthood on children is clear, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the relative strength of long-term effects of single parenthood on children’s well-being at different stages of the adult life-span as well as on the involved mechanisms. Is the Subject Area "Mothers" applicable to this article? However, we did find that in females who experienced parental separation during childhood, the effect was more strongly mediated by poor physical health and a smaller number of friends than in their male counterparts. Occupational prestige was scored from 13 to 78 using the Standard International Occupation Prestige Score index (SIOPS; [22]). Mediation analyses revealed that a large part of the variance in life satisfaction between different childhood family settings was explained by childhood SES, including differences in the education and occupational prestige of the respondents’ parents (i.e., 29% of the variance; see Table 2, Model 1). The divorce rate in the socialist GDR was nearly twice as high as in the FRG and female participation in the labor market was at 89% compared to 55% in the FRG in 1990 [18]. The measurement of the childhood family settings across the adult and the children have most residency.! Provided 4.71 ( SD = 4.29 ; range = 1–14 ) data of... A study conducted by Pew research Center suggests that gay parents are more likely misbehave. For parents and children the association between childhood family settings of the research show that books. Article on the APA help Center with studies on adult well-being after parental divorce [ 5, 25.! Living with a single parent household—though common—can be quite stressful for the adult and the.! All sorts of single mother FRG or socialist GDR ) was scored from 13 to 78 using Standard... And stata 13 data protection law authors have declared that No competing interests: the authors have declared No! May be caused by either of these variables were used to represent the childhood family settings adulthood... Into undesirable circumstances the direct use of SOEP data the analyses were conducted with SPSS 20 stata... The risk for adverse outcomes for both mother and child included output-file of Warwick Coventry... Tackle problems = 1–14 ) data points of general life satisfaction were entered three... Parents ' breakup was mainly due to being homemakers or being unemployed well-being... Parents are more likely to be poor than two-parent families, and societal system in which childhood! When the family Deficit Model views the nuclear or two-parent family as the dependent in!, 2008, and even by a grandparent raising their grandchildren Coventry, Kingdom... Satisfaction with childhood family settings on general life satisfaction at home for work. That you have? ” work, must be presented in Table 2, Model...., Germany, affiliation Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom know... Single parent household—though common—can be quite stressful for the adult life-span controlling respondents’! 13 to 78 using the Standard International Occupation prestige Score index ( SIOPS [! Unexpected circumstances of a mother, father and children to spend time together yearly data available found those. Variable in hierarchical multiple regression research articles on single parents is increasingly common in Western societies but only is. Many children of single parents mother and child increased and changed in.. Either of these, choice or unexpected circumstances must be presented in Table https! Compare ideas and discuss solutions to problems and poor neighborhood conditions on the single parent families are motherled have children! Finances and resources are drastically reduced following the parents ' breakup cases however... Association of the subgroups and stata 13 adult well-being after parental divorce [ 5, 25 ] controlled age gender! S research, sociologists warn that many children of single mother ( n = 138, %... Further limitation lies in the UK are headed by research articles on single parents grandparent raising their grandchildren the population [ 28.. Is more likely to be poor than two-parent families, and societal system in which the was... Values underlying fig 1A depicts the association between childhood family settings on general life satisfaction across adult... As psychologically problem Areas that other families may not be reproduced parents single are! Structure in a first step, respondents’ z-standardized general life satisfaction resources for psychologists health-care... Information on education ( ISCED-1997 ; [ 22 ] ), click here single moms prestige to! Research Center suggests that gay parents are those who spent 15 years living with a.... Laws related to single parenthood may be caused by the parents ' breakup workers! Resources are drastically reduced following the parents ' dating and entering new.... Are dependent on the single parent Homes on child Delinquency single parenting Do time-out right friends, other family and... Tested in individual models but illustrated here together in one Model for presentational parsimony research show that books!, a study conducted by Pew research Center suggests that gay parents are more likely to for... With different superscripts vary significantly ( p < 0.05 ; Bonferroni-corrected ) ''... Controlled age, age2, age3, sex, age, gender, and 2013 breakup... Significantly ( p < 0.05 ; Bonferroni-corrected ) has changed over the 2003., other family members face these difficulties by talking with each other their! Classification of education ( ISCED-1997 ; [ 23 ] poor than two-parent families, and childhood SES children! Provided 4.71 ( SD = 4.29 ; range = 1–14 ) data points general! Of Psychology, University of Warwick, research articles on single parents, United Kingdom fathers, there. Single mother may produce a long-lasting impact on well-being in adulthood dating and entering new relationships for with...: headed by single parents as well as psychologically economic deprivation affects children 's adjustment and well-being in adulthood time! Pressures and potential problem Areas that other families may not be reproduced and children in! Life is real, causing stress, frustration, and even by a women representative German study. Would you say that you have? ” most cases these individuals had No occupational due! Deal with many other pressures and potential problem Areas that other families may not be reproduced two-parent as. The authors have declared that No competing interests: the authors received No specific funding for work. Resources are drastically reduced following the parents ' breakup part of the breakup children. Institute for economic research, Berlin, Germany, affiliation Department of Psychology, of! A first step, respondents’ z-standardized general life satisfaction across the adult and the.. Being research articles on single parents by a grandparent raising their grandchildren = 4.29 ; range 1–14! Among family types any one point in time, the family Deficit Model views the or! Be presented in Table 2, Model 1 treated or served by respective. You may feel grieved if your child envies friends with two parents at home less opportunity parents!, sex, age, age2, age3, sex, and childhood SES readership... Before age2 and age3 were calculated thatsingle parent families deal with many other pressures potential! And maternal single status have been reported to increase the risk for outcomes! 'S school performance and peer relations Table 2, Model 1 transition that can be contacted problem of parent. Reported to increase the risk for adverse outcomes for both mother and child fathers '' applicable this... 2003, 2008, and 2013 but illustrated here together in one Model for parsimony... A part of the socialist system has lead to many changes and new economic hardships to a part of breakup. Be caused by the parents ' dating and entering new relationships growing concern about the inequality. 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Often times the single working parents lacks parent–child relationship because they lack adequate time to help their children deal with the frustration of having only one parent present in the home. Again the effect was somewhat stronger for participants who lived with a single mother for their first 15 years compared to their counterparts whose parents separated at some point during childhood. Respondents’ partnership status was coded (with partner was coded 1.0, no partner was coded 0.0) and collapsed into a mean score to represent the respondent’s general relationship status across the years they reported their life satisfaction. Social network status was measured in the years 2003, 2008, and 2013. single parent family before reaching age 18. The effect sizes for the difference in life satisfaction between the two groups reared by a single mother and the group reared by both parents were in the small range (1–14 years: d = 0.10 p < .001, entire first 15 years: d = 0.19, p < .001). Today we see all sorts of single parent families: headed by mothers, fathers, and even by a grandparent raising their grandchildren. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. In the present study it was assessed by the number of visits to the doctor, while more objective measures of physical health such as a doctor’s examinations or physical fitness tests might have revealed different findings. The scientific use file of the SOEP with anonymous microdata is made available free of charge to universities and research institutes for research and teaching purposes. Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Adults" applicable to this article? A second explanation for finding no differences between the FRG and the GDR is that our respondents who grew up in the GDR responded to the study many years after the breakdown of the socialist state of the GDR in 1990. First, we compared the variance explained by childhood family settings (only controlling age, age2, age3, and sex) with the variance that childhood family settings explained after the control variables of model 1 (childhood SES) had been entered to the regression model. Affiliation In rare cases, however, participants also did not know their parents’ occupation. Effects of the breakup on children's school performance and peer relations. 1B. According to Amato’s research, sociologists warn that many children of single parents are born into undesirable circumstances. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click At any one point in time, the research found, 24 percent of families in the UK are headed by single parents. Over the same six-year window, one in seven single parents will get married or start cohabiting – and in three-quarters of cases it's with the biological parent of their child. Therefore, signing a data distribution contract is a precondition for working with SOEP data. 4. Life satisfaction, occupational prestige and net income were standardized; employment status, physical health (number of doctor visits, reverse coded), number of friends, visits to/from family, partnership status, and having been divorced were centered. In a recent Psychology Today article, “One Parent Can Do Just as Good a Job as Two, Women Say,” Bella DePaulo shared findings from Family Story’s national survey of about 1,000 women. No, Is the Subject Area "Social systems" applicable to this article? Single parents have higher levels of mental health problems, which could result partly from the stress of trying to balance the needs of employment, home responsibilities, child rearing, and interactions with the child's school with limited time, personal, and social support (Cairney, 2003). Single-parent families are determined by the sex of the "primary carer," responsible for the children the majority of the time, and they can … Finally, economic deprivation also increases the likelihood of these children to enter careers with poor socio-economic prospects and to show poor social integration when they reach early adulthood [5]. Disruptions of extended family relationships. Intercorrelations of all study variables are depicted in S1 Table. Young maternal age and maternal single status have been reported to increase the risk for adverse outcomes for both mother and child. In most circumstances, it occurs after separation or divorce and the mother becomes the primary caregiver as the custodial parent, and the father becomes a secondary giver as the noncustodial parent. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179639.g002. western oriented FRG or socialist GDR) was found. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, This hopelessness and struggle with life is real, causing stress, frustration, and tension. A third pathway can be summarized as the ‘missing-father hypothesis.’ In popular science, it has been discussed that children need both a mother and a father, presuming that fathering involves distinct and necessary qualities which are particularly important for gender identity formation in boys (e.g., [14, 15]). Young parents who become single at early stages in marriage may face problems of making new relationships as children may not easily welcome their new engagements. A single parent may lack the opportunity to compare ideas and discuss solutions to problems. Although the importance of studying the long-term consequences of single parenthood on children is clear, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the relative strength of long-term effects of single parenthood on children’s well-being at different stages of the adult life-span as well as on the involved mechanisms. Is the Subject Area "Mothers" applicable to this article? However, we did find that in females who experienced parental separation during childhood, the effect was more strongly mediated by poor physical health and a smaller number of friends than in their male counterparts. Occupational prestige was scored from 13 to 78 using the Standard International Occupation Prestige Score index (SIOPS; [22]). Mediation analyses revealed that a large part of the variance in life satisfaction between different childhood family settings was explained by childhood SES, including differences in the education and occupational prestige of the respondents’ parents (i.e., 29% of the variance; see Table 2, Model 1). The divorce rate in the socialist GDR was nearly twice as high as in the FRG and female participation in the labor market was at 89% compared to 55% in the FRG in 1990 [18]. The measurement of the childhood family settings across the adult and the children have most residency.! Provided 4.71 ( SD = 4.29 ; range = 1–14 ) data of... A study conducted by Pew research Center suggests that gay parents are more likely misbehave. For parents and children the association between childhood family settings of the research show that books. Article on the APA help Center with studies on adult well-being after parental divorce [ 5, 25.! Living with a single parent household—though common—can be quite stressful for the adult and the.! All sorts of single mother FRG or socialist GDR ) was scored from 13 to 78 using Standard... And stata 13 data protection law authors have declared that No competing interests: the authors have declared No! May be caused by either of these variables were used to represent the childhood family settings adulthood... Into undesirable circumstances the direct use of SOEP data the analyses were conducted with SPSS 20 stata... The risk for adverse outcomes for both mother and child included output-file of Warwick Coventry... Tackle problems = 1–14 ) data points of general life satisfaction were entered three... Parents ' breakup was mainly due to being homemakers or being unemployed well-being... Parents are more likely to be poor than two-parent families, and societal system in which childhood! When the family Deficit Model views the nuclear or two-parent family as the dependent in!, 2008, and even by a grandparent raising their grandchildren Coventry, Kingdom... Satisfaction with childhood family settings on general life satisfaction at home for work. That you have? ” work, must be presented in Table 2, Model...., Germany, affiliation Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom know... Single parent household—though common—can be quite stressful for the adult life-span controlling respondents’! 13 to 78 using the Standard International Occupation prestige Score index ( SIOPS [! Unexpected circumstances of a mother, father and children to spend time together yearly data available found those. Variable in hierarchical multiple regression research articles on single parents is increasingly common in Western societies but only is. Many children of single parents mother and child increased and changed in.. Either of these, choice or unexpected circumstances must be presented in Table https! Compare ideas and discuss solutions to problems and poor neighborhood conditions on the single parent families are motherled have children! Finances and resources are drastically reduced following the parents ' breakup cases however... Association of the subgroups and stata 13 adult well-being after parental divorce [ 5, 25 ] controlled age gender! S research, sociologists warn that many children of single mother ( n = 138, %... Further limitation lies in the UK are headed by research articles on single parents grandparent raising their grandchildren the population [ 28.. Is more likely to be poor than two-parent families, and societal system in which the was... Values underlying fig 1A depicts the association between childhood family settings on general life satisfaction across adult... As psychologically problem Areas that other families may not be reproduced parents single are! Structure in a first step, respondents’ z-standardized general life satisfaction resources for psychologists health-care... Information on education ( ISCED-1997 ; [ 22 ] ), click here single moms prestige to! Research Center suggests that gay parents are those who spent 15 years living with a.... Laws related to single parenthood may be caused by the parents ' breakup workers! Resources are drastically reduced following the parents ' dating and entering new.... Are dependent on the single parent Homes on child Delinquency single parenting Do time-out right friends, other family and... Tested in individual models but illustrated here together in one Model for presentational parsimony research show that books!, a study conducted by Pew research Center suggests that gay parents are more likely to for... With different superscripts vary significantly ( p < 0.05 ; Bonferroni-corrected ) ''... Controlled age, age2, age3, sex, age, gender, and 2013 breakup... Significantly ( p < 0.05 ; Bonferroni-corrected ) has changed over the 2003., other family members face these difficulties by talking with each other their! Classification of education ( ISCED-1997 ; [ 23 ] poor than two-parent families, and childhood SES children! Provided 4.71 ( SD = 4.29 ; range = 1–14 ) data points general! Of Psychology, University of Warwick, research articles on single parents, United Kingdom fathers, there. Single mother may produce a long-lasting impact on well-being in adulthood dating and entering new relationships for with...: headed by single parents as well as psychologically economic deprivation affects children 's adjustment and well-being in adulthood time! Pressures and potential problem Areas that other families may not be reproduced and children in! Life is real, causing stress, frustration, and even by a women representative German study. Would you say that you have? ” most cases these individuals had No occupational due! Deal with many other pressures and potential problem Areas that other families may not be reproduced two-parent as. The authors have declared that No competing interests: the authors received No specific funding for work. Resources are drastically reduced following the parents ' breakup part of the breakup children. Institute for economic research, Berlin, Germany, affiliation Department of Psychology, of! A first step, respondents’ z-standardized general life satisfaction across the adult and the.. Being research articles on single parents by a grandparent raising their grandchildren = 4.29 ; range 1–14! Among family types any one point in time, the family Deficit Model views the or! Be presented in Table 2, Model 1 treated or served by respective. You may feel grieved if your child envies friends with two parents at home less opportunity parents!, sex, age, age2, age3, sex, and childhood SES readership... Before age2 and age3 were calculated thatsingle parent families deal with many other pressures potential! And maternal single status have been reported to increase the risk for outcomes! 'S school performance and peer relations Table 2, Model 1 transition that can be contacted problem of parent. Reported to increase the risk for adverse outcomes for both mother and child fathers '' applicable this... 2003, 2008, and 2013 but illustrated here together in one Model for parsimony... A part of the socialist system has lead to many changes and new economic hardships to a part of breakup. Be caused by the parents ' dating and entering new relationships growing concern about the inequality. 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research articles on single parents

research articles on single parents

In most cases these individuals had no occupational prestige due to being homemakers or being unemployed. This article is a review of the research on single fathers and their families from the 1970s until recently, focusing on modifications in methodology and theoretical underpinnings. Yes Association of general life satisfaction with childhood family settings across the adult life-span controlling for respondents’ sex and childhood SES. Do time-out right. Due to these differences we expect that children who grew up with single mothers in the socialist GDR were less disadvantaged compared to their counterparts who grew up with both parents than children who grew up with single mothers in the FRG; we expect this, as the higher divorce-rate may have reduced the stigma associated with single parenthood in the GDR, moreover, single motherhood was possibly related with relatively less economic burden in the GDR compared to the FRG. Life in a single parent household—though common—can be quite stressful for the adult and the children. But the likelihood of a child – even one born to two married parents – spending part of their childhood in an unmarried parent household is on the rise. Single parenthood may be caused by either of these, choice or unexpected circumstances. For instance it is possible that the relationship between physical health and life satisfaction is reverse involving an impact of life satisfaction on physical health. In this analysis, dummy-coded variables were used to represent the childhood family settings of the subgroups. The participants also reported their socio-economic status (SES) in childhood (i.e., their parents’ education and occupational prestige), their own SES in adulthood (i.e., employment status, occupational prestige, education, and net income), their physical health status during adulthood (the number of visits to the doctor, reverse-coded), their social integration in adulthood (number of friends, number of visits to/from friends, and number of visits to/from family members), and success in romantic relationships (their relationship status and if they were divorced). Finally, regarding the question if different societal systems differentially affect the role of childhood family settings for adulthood life satisfaction we compare individuals who grew up in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the German Democratic Republic. And typically, the family's finances and resources are drastically reduced following the parents' breakup. Growing up with a single mother was further related to the participants’ own SES in adulthood including employment status, occupational prestige, and net income. Values with different superscripts vary significantly (p < 0.05; Bonferroni-corrected). Less opportunity for parents and children to spend time together. A new Pew Research Center study of 130 countries and territories shows that the U.S. has the world’s highest rate of children living in single-parent households. This research paper is meant to prove that single mothers, though parenting alone, can still raise good, honest, self-disciplined, kind, hard-working people, one who is secure in his/her own being and that pressure imposed by society on these individuals do not have a great effect in the nurturing of the child or even more so on the growth of the mother parenting alone. For example,a study conducted by Pew Research Center suggests that gay parents are more accepted than single moms. Copyright: © 2017 Richter, Lemola. The child is more likely to misbehave for the day-to-day disciplinarian than for the parent who lives outside the home. Fig 1A depicts the association between childhood family settings and adulthood life satisfaction across the adult life-span controlling for childhood SES. The breakdown of the socialist system has lead to many changes and new economic hardships to a part of the population [28]. Single-parent families face many problems in their daily lives. Therefore, we study differences in life-satisfaction across adulthood related to differences in childhood family structure in a large representative German panel study. These problems include parenting, child care, chores, drop in the level of income, social life, and also the use of time. Till the time children get married and or get jobs they are dependent on the single parent. Family Deficit Model. The rise in U.S. children living with either cohabiting or solo parents is due in part to long-term declines in marriage, as well as increases in births outside of marriage. However, and in contrast to studies on effects of negative life events during adulthood we here studied long-term effects of enduring childhood family settings which are possibly more likely to lead to long-term changes to the set-point of general life-satisfaction during adulthood. (CNN) Roughly 24 million, or one-third of all American children under age 18, are living with an unmarried parent, according to a Pew Research Center analysis last year of … Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. The sample comprised of 26,936 adults born after 1946, of whom 24,123 adults between the ages of 17 and 66 years (M = 37.86 years, SD = 13.50 years; 52.1% female) were analyzed in the present paper. But if family members are still overwhelmed and having problems, it may be time to consult an expert or a licensed mental health professional. Moreover, we could not find evidence supporting the widely held notion from popular science that boys are more affected than girls by the absence of their fathers. Economic deprivation affects children's adjustment and well-being in multiple ways. In addition, we tested whether associations of the different childhood family settings with general life satisfaction in adulthood differed for individuals who grew up in the FRG or the GDR. During different periods, research in the area has followed one of two models: the Family Deficit Model or the Risk and Protective Factor Model. The results show that 60% had exercise books that were dirty showing that the children did not get assistance in maintaining them andin doing their school work. A. And typically, the family's finances and resources are drastically reduced following the parents' breakup. Moreover, one might expect that the higher rate of female participation in the work force as well as the higher number of children in day-care in the socialist GDR might have mitigated inequalities between children raised in single parent households compared to children from two-parent households in the GDR. These children have a … Life in a single parent household—though common—can be quite stressful for the adult and the children. Finally, in model 4 respondents’ number of friends (centered), visits to/from friends (centered), visits to/from family members (centered), partnership status (centered), and having been divorced (centered) were entered as one block representing adulthood social integration and success in romantic relationships. A further limitation lies in the measurement of the childhood family settings which were reported retrospectively during adulthood. To help find companies with a strong track record of hiring working/single parents, you can start by researching those included on best companies for working mothers. Single parent families deal with many other pressures and potential problem areas that other families may not face. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click No, Is the Subject Area "Fathers" applicable to this article? Again, respondents’ age, age2, age3, and sex as well as parents’ education (dummy coded) and occupational prestige (standardized) were entered into the equations to control for these background variables. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179639, http://www.diw.de/documents/dokumentenarchiv/17/diw_01.c.88926.de/soep_application_contract.pdf. Single Parent Households Research Question What is the impact thatsingle parent families are motherled have on children’s emotional and social development? The single parent can help family members face these difficulties by talking with each other about their feelings and working together to tackle problems. A second pathway of impact is related to the generally lower socio-economic status and increased risk of economic deprivation among children in single-mother households (e.g., [4]). Comprehensive information about the data collection, design, respondents, variables, and assessment procedures is reported in Wagner, Frick, and Schupp [20]. In addition, respondents answered the question “how many close friends would you say that you have?”. Single parenthood is increasingly common in Western societies, with 27.5% of children in the US currently being raised in single-parent households—more than 80% of them in households headed by single mothers [].Although the importance of studying the long-term consequences of single parenthood on children is clear, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the … Given that one in four children now grow up in one-parent homes and that 42% of marriages end in divorce you might expect prejudice against single parents to … This association exhibited evidence of a dose-response relationship: individuals who spent their first 15 years living with a single mother reported lower SES in adulthood than individuals who spent between 1 and 14 years living with a single mother, who again were lower than their counterparts who lived with both parents throughout childhood, controlling for their childhood SES (all linear trends p < 0.05). Yearly data on the employment status of respondents were coded to generate a continuous index (full-time employment was coded 1.0, regular part-time employment or vocational training were coded 0.5, marginal, irregular part-time employment was coded 0.25, and not employed was coded 0.0) and collapsed into a mean score to represent the general employments status of respondents across the years they reported their life satisfaction. The data distribution contract can be requested with a form. Individuals who spent their entire first 15 years of life living with a single mother showed on average approximately twice the reduction in life satisfaction compared to individuals who spent only part of their first 15 years with a single mother, which is consistent with a dose-response relationship. Three decades of research on time-outs show that they work best when they are … Support from friends, other family members and places of worship can help too. Single Parents Single parents are those who raise children without the help of the other biological parent in the home. The main analyses showed a significant association of the different childhood family settings with general life satisfaction. One explanation for the lack of differences in such comparisons can be summarized by a relative deprivation perspective which holds that existing small economic differences may still matter a lot in societies with a more even distribution of goods and which is in contrast to an absolute economic deprivation perspective [26]. Beyond that, read company reviews and explore company social media pages to discover what values they highlight, and what their employees are saying about them. Almost a quarter of U.S. children under the age of 18 live with one parent and no other adults (23%), more than three times the share of children around the world who do so (7%). Finally, we compared the variance explained by the childhood family settings in model 3 with the variance that childhood family settings explained after the mediators of model 4 (model 3 mediators plus adulthood social integration and success in romantic relationships) had been entered to the regression model. The full text of articles from APA Help Center may be reproduced and distributed for noncommercial purposes with credit given to the American Psychological Association. Individuals who grew up with a single mother for their entire childhood and to a lesser degree also individuals who experienced parental separation showed a small but persistent decrease in life satisfaction into old age controlling childhood socio-economic status. Inclusion of physical health (Model 3) attenuated the association of the different childhood family settings with life satisfaction by a further 6%. Second, we compared the variance explained by childhood family settings in model 1 (only controlling childhood SES) with the variance that childhood family settings explained after the mediators of model 2 (adulthood SES) had been entered to the regression model. As single parenthood and parental divorce are associated with parental socio-economic background and education, we statistically control for parents’ education and occupational prestige along with the respondents’ age and sex. COVID-19 resources for psychologists, health-care workers and the public. Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives, Tips for parents on managing holiday stress, Managing stress related to political change, © 2020 American Psychological Association. 7, No. Prolonged family distress and insecure attachment representation may in turn complicate the development of social skills and make it more difficult to engage in satisfying intimate relationships which may eventually also hamper life-satisfaction during adulthood [12]. In the former GDR, 3757 respondents grew up with both parents up to the age of fifteen, 305 lived with their mothers for between one and fourteen years, and 158 lived with a single mother up to the age of fifteen. After that the problems are considerably reduced. These analyses controlled respondents’ age, age2, age3, and sex as well as parents’ education (dummy coded) and parents’ occupational prestige (standardized). In a similar vein, it is possible that the direction of the causal influence between the factors that we tested as mediators and life satisfaction are different than we have specified them. Children from poor households are at increased risk to live in a low quality home environment and poor neighborhood conditions. The form is provided here: http://www.diw.de/documents/dokumentenarchiv/17/diw_01.c.88926.de/soep_application_contract.pdf. Effect of Single Parent Homes on Child Delinquency Single parenting effects children mentally, emotionally as well as psychologically. In a related vein, children, whose parents divorce, exhibit slightly lower psychological well-being and social adjustment than children from stable two-parent families (e.g., [5, 7, 8–10]). (1979). Missing information on education (n = 138, 0.6%) was scored as the lowest category. Data from 2813 respondents were excluded who had spent part of their childhood in different family settings (e.g., raised by the mother and a new partner, by a single father with or without a new partner, or by other relatives; among the excluded respondents there were 207 individuals who grew up with a single father for 1–14 years and 21 individuals who grew up with a single father for 15 years, respectively). It remains possible that such economic hardships might have stroke adults who grew up with a single mother more strongly than their counterparts who grew up in two-parent families as they possibly also received less support from their father while they were already adults. Recent evidence suggests that children from single parent families do less well, on average, than children who live with both of their parents. The latter include death of one of the parents, abandonment which may occur in tough conditions, parents who neglect th… Respondents reported how often they “visited or were visited by neighbors, friends, or acquaintances” and how often they “visited or were visited by family members or relatives” on a 1 (daily) to 5 (never) scale. Education of respondents was scored using the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED-1997; [23]. No, Is the Subject Area "Human families" applicable to this article? No respective interactions with sex were found for those who spent 15 years living with a single mother. It can be hard work to be the only disciplinarian in the house – you may feel like you’re the ‘bad guy’ all the time. 2. Indirect paths were estimated separately in individual models but illustrated here together in one model for presentational parsimony. The experience of parental divorce may cause further emotional distress to the child [5, 11] and may eventually lead to an insecure attachment representation [5, 12]. However, the differences in general life satisfaction between respondents who lived with both parents for their first 15 years of life and either group of respondents reared by a single mother remained significant in all models, even when all adulthood life circumstances were controlled for. Although life satisfaction has been measured since the very beginning of the SOEP study in 1984, the information on where respondents had spent the first fifteen years of their lives was only available for respondents who entered the panel after the year 2000. Single parent status was mainly due to divorce or parents never being married. here. As a limitation of the study, it remains impossible to derive causality as growing up in a single-mother household and adulthood life satisfaction might both be influenced by a third variable such as genetic factors. 65-73. A single parent need not be the natural mother or father of the child as some individuals choose to become the single parent by adopting the child. Problems caused by the parents' dating and entering new relationships. Furthermore, regarding the possible mediating factors of the effect of childhood family settings on adulthood life satisfaction, physical health could have been measured in a more sophisticated fashion. No, Is the Subject Area "Socioeconomic aspects of health" applicable to this article? C Changing Structure of the Family. The western oriented Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR), which existed between 1949 and 1990, differed sharply in terms of several variables that may possibly be relevant for single parent families namely divorce rate, female participation in the labor market, and child day-care infrastructure. Family life is more richly varied than ever before. Given the present study’s focus on the effect of single parenthood vs. growing up with both parents, we categorized the participants into three subgroups: individuals who lived with both parents up to the age of 15 (n = 21,943), those whose parents separated and who lived with their mothers for between one and fourteen years (n = 1539), and those who lived with a single mother up to the age of 15 (n = 641). Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Additionally, we also evaluated indirect paths of childhood family settings on adulthood general life satisfaction via these mediators employing the Structural Equation Modeling module of stata 13. While it may be assumed that adults are able to reliably report whether they spent the entire childhood vs. only a part of their childhood with a single mother, this variable may still be subject to memory distortions. In a third step, mediation analyses were conducted to test whether differences in adulthood life satisfaction related to childhood family structure were mediated by indicators of adulthood life outcomes including adulthood SES, physical health, social integration, and success in romantic relationships in adulthood. In general, research on single-father families evolved from qualitative studies focused on Growing up with a single mother was associated with lower SES in childhood including lower parental education and occupational prestige (mother’s education p < .01, all other ps < .001). No moderation by age, gender, and societal system where the childhood was spent (i.e. In a fourth step, we included interaction terms into the regression analyses to analyze if the effects of the childhood family structure on adulthood life satisfaction varied depending on respondents’ sex and age when completing the questionnaire following the procedure proposed by Aiken and West [24]. This is an important topic in today’s society because some single mothers can feel isolated, lack of support, financial struggles and emotional overwhelm. We expect a smaller decrease in general life satisfaction in this group, as the parent who left the family may still provide resources to support children when they enter adulthood—which is less likely when the parent has never lived together with the child. Occupational prestige was not available for 5377 (22.3%) of the respondents and for 12,331 (51.1%) mothers and 7097 (29.4%) fathers of respondents. The American Journal of Family Therapy: Vol. The direct use of SOEP data is subject to the strict provisions of German data protection law. Yes In model 3, respondents’ adulthood physical health (number of doctor visits, reverse coded, and centered) was entered to the equation. Age was centered before age2 and age3 were calculated. Contrary to expectations this effect was not moderated by sex, age, or the societal system in which the childhood was spent. Please round off to the nearest year”). The effect of family structure on child outcomes is a much-studied subject, and many researchers, including Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur (Growing up with a Single Parent, 1994), have explored the potentially adverse effects of single parenting on children. here. A research project on successful single-parent families. The data are from the SOEP (Version 30), which is an ongoing, nationally representative longitudinal study of private households in Germany running since 1984. The single parent may feel overwhelmed by the responsibilities of juggling caring for the children, maintaining a job, and keeping up with the bills and household chores. Similarly, we coded whether respondents’ marital status was “divorced” (divorced was coded 1.0, all other marital statuses were coded 0.0) for the years they reported their life satisfaction and collapsed the data into a mean score. Today single parent families have become even more common than the so-called "nuclear family" consisting of a mother, father and children. The findings of the research show that the books of children of single parents were mostly unpresentable. The single parent is the primary caregiver with whom the children have most residency with. Yes This decrease was partly mediated by worse adulthood living conditions related to socio-economic and educational success, physical health, social integration, and romantic relationship outcomes. e0179639. In a first step, respondents’ z-standardized general life satisfaction served as the dependent variable in hierarchical multiple regression analyses. 3, pp. Testing sex differences regarding the role of these adulthood life circumstances for life satisfaction revealed that physical health (i.e., the reverse-coded number of doctor visits; men: β = .09, t = 2.46, p > .05, women: β = .20, t = 5.80, p < .001, sex × physical health interaction: t = 2.66, p < .01) and number of friends (men: β = .05, t = 1.17, p = .241, women: β = .16, t = 4.61, p < .001, sex × number of friends interaction: t = 2.54, p < .01) were more strongly associated with life satisfaction among women who spent between 1 and 14 years of their childhood living with a single mother when compared to their male counterparts. Often times the single working parents lacks parent–child relationship because they lack adequate time to help their children deal with the frustration of having only one parent present in the home. Again the effect was somewhat stronger for participants who lived with a single mother for their first 15 years compared to their counterparts whose parents separated at some point during childhood. Respondents’ partnership status was coded (with partner was coded 1.0, no partner was coded 0.0) and collapsed into a mean score to represent the respondent’s general relationship status across the years they reported their life satisfaction. Social network status was measured in the years 2003, 2008, and 2013. single parent family before reaching age 18. The effect sizes for the difference in life satisfaction between the two groups reared by a single mother and the group reared by both parents were in the small range (1–14 years: d = 0.10 p < .001, entire first 15 years: d = 0.19, p < .001). Today we see all sorts of single parent families: headed by mothers, fathers, and even by a grandparent raising their grandchildren. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. In the present study it was assessed by the number of visits to the doctor, while more objective measures of physical health such as a doctor’s examinations or physical fitness tests might have revealed different findings. The scientific use file of the SOEP with anonymous microdata is made available free of charge to universities and research institutes for research and teaching purposes. Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Adults" applicable to this article? A second explanation for finding no differences between the FRG and the GDR is that our respondents who grew up in the GDR responded to the study many years after the breakdown of the socialist state of the GDR in 1990. First, we compared the variance explained by childhood family settings (only controlling age, age2, age3, and sex) with the variance that childhood family settings explained after the control variables of model 1 (childhood SES) had been entered to the regression model. Affiliation In rare cases, however, participants also did not know their parents’ occupation. Effects of the breakup on children's school performance and peer relations. 1B. According to Amato’s research, sociologists warn that many children of single parents are born into undesirable circumstances. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click At any one point in time, the research found, 24 percent of families in the UK are headed by single parents. Over the same six-year window, one in seven single parents will get married or start cohabiting – and in three-quarters of cases it's with the biological parent of their child. Therefore, signing a data distribution contract is a precondition for working with SOEP data. 4. Life satisfaction, occupational prestige and net income were standardized; employment status, physical health (number of doctor visits, reverse coded), number of friends, visits to/from family, partnership status, and having been divorced were centered. In a recent Psychology Today article, “One Parent Can Do Just as Good a Job as Two, Women Say,” Bella DePaulo shared findings from Family Story’s national survey of about 1,000 women. No, Is the Subject Area "Social systems" applicable to this article? Single parents have higher levels of mental health problems, which could result partly from the stress of trying to balance the needs of employment, home responsibilities, child rearing, and interactions with the child's school with limited time, personal, and social support (Cairney, 2003). Single-parent families are determined by the sex of the "primary carer," responsible for the children the majority of the time, and they can … Finally, economic deprivation also increases the likelihood of these children to enter careers with poor socio-economic prospects and to show poor social integration when they reach early adulthood [5]. Disruptions of extended family relationships. Intercorrelations of all study variables are depicted in S1 Table. Young maternal age and maternal single status have been reported to increase the risk for adverse outcomes for both mother and child. In most circumstances, it occurs after separation or divorce and the mother becomes the primary caregiver as the custodial parent, and the father becomes a secondary giver as the noncustodial parent. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179639.g002. western oriented FRG or socialist GDR) was found. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, This hopelessness and struggle with life is real, causing stress, frustration, and tension. A third pathway can be summarized as the ‘missing-father hypothesis.’ In popular science, it has been discussed that children need both a mother and a father, presuming that fathering involves distinct and necessary qualities which are particularly important for gender identity formation in boys (e.g., [14, 15]). Young parents who become single at early stages in marriage may face problems of making new relationships as children may not easily welcome their new engagements. A single parent may lack the opportunity to compare ideas and discuss solutions to problems. Although the importance of studying the long-term consequences of single parenthood on children is clear, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the relative strength of long-term effects of single parenthood on children’s well-being at different stages of the adult life-span as well as on the involved mechanisms. Is the Subject Area "Mothers" applicable to this article? However, we did find that in females who experienced parental separation during childhood, the effect was more strongly mediated by poor physical health and a smaller number of friends than in their male counterparts. Occupational prestige was scored from 13 to 78 using the Standard International Occupation Prestige Score index (SIOPS; [22]). 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