During the Middle Ages, Lugdunum was transformed to Lyon by natural sound change. In 48 AD, emperor Claudius asked the Senate to grant the notable men of the three Gauls the right to accede to the Senate. The Gallo-Roman (or Vulgar Latin) dialect of the late Roman period evolved into the dialects of the Oïl languages and Old French in the north, and into Occitan in the south. It was considered a new Rome and became known as the Queen of Cities. It was built on the site of the old Greek state of Byzantium on the shores of the Propontis in AD 330 by the then ruler Constantine. The Celtic language was probably brought to the west by migrant groups of the Bronze …  They wore the Roman tunic instead of their traditional clothing. Before 22 BC Gaul had three geographical divisions, one of which was divided into multiple Roman provinces: A major reorganization of imperial administration begun at the end of the 3rd century during the reign of Diocletian and completed a few decades later by Constantine further reduced the importance of Lugdunum. Constantinople became the new Roman capital city of the east.  Four aqueducts brought water to the city's fountains, public baths, and wealthy homes. Meanwhile, disorders continued among local peoples in Gaul and Hispania. As emperor, he returned in 43 AD en route to his conquest of Britain and stopped again after its victorious conclusion in 47. When Vercingetorix united the Gauls, not many had joined him and hence he adopted a policy of scorched earth and hiding behind natural fortifications. The capital of Gaul was the ancient Lugdunum (modern Lyon). Despite the fact that under the Romans, Gaul received for the first time a formal political and administrative unity, economic and social differences between its regions remained. In 12 BC, Drusus completed an administrative census of the area and dedicated an altar to his stepfather Augustus at the junction of the two rivers. Archeological evidence shows Lugdunum was a pre-Gallic settlement as far back as the neolithic era, and a Gallic settlement with continuous occupation from the 4th century BC. Bennett, Matthew (2004). Among the latter were Bishop Pothinus, Blandina, Doctor Attalus, Ponticus, and the deacon Sanctus of Vienne. Because of its status as the capital of Gaul, the city was able to develop in a number of ways. Other evidence suggests other cities surpassed Lugdunum as trading centers. While the Romans were busy displacing a king and building a republic, a number of tribes of Celtic people, who were said to have a warrior aristocracy, migrated across the Alps into the Po Valley. The Roman Republic began its takeover of Celtic Gaul in 121 BC, when it conquered and annexed the southern reaches of the area. There was trade with Campania for ceramics and wine, and use of some Italic-style home furnishings before the Roman conquest. The city was plundered or at least severely damaged by the battle. In 22 BC, imperial administration of Gaul was reorganised establishing the provinces of Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Belgica and Gallia Lugdunensis. There, he had himself proclaimed Augustus and made plans to counter Severus. Constantinople became the new Roman capital city of the east. Lugdunum est civitas Gallie quasi lucidum dunam, id est lucidus mons, dunam enim in Greco mons. The Last of the Roman Empire The Hagia Sophia began as a Christian church, constructed under the rule of Justinian I. In 57 BC, Julius Caesar led the conquest of northern Gaul, and already specified that the part to the north of the Seine and Marne rivers was inhabited by a people or alliance known as the Belgae. The armies were established in two separate provinces of Upper and Lower Germany and this is where the excitement took place. The decline of Roman Gaul after ad 200 was part of the complex process that led to weakening of the grip of the Roman Empire everywhere in the west. Toorians, Lauran, “Endlicher’s Glossary, an attempt to write its history”, in: García Alonso (Juan Luis) (ed. Many of the wealthy merchants and craftsmen were freedmen. In 507, the Visigoths were pushed out of most of Gaul by the Frankish king Clovis I at the Battle of Vouillé. The conflict climaxed in 451 at the Battle of Châlons, in which the Romans and Goths defeated Attila. This article is about the city in Gaul; for other uses of Lugdunum, see Lugdunum (disambiguation). The Parisii were a small tribe that lived in the area that would one day become the capital of France and bear their name. Narbonne (Narbo Martins, founded 118 B.c.) The Gallic Empire ended when Aurelian decisively defeated Tetricus I at Chalons. In 286/7 Carausius commander of the Classis Britannica, the fleet of the English Channel, declared himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul. Roman Gaul is an umbrella term for several Roman provinces in western Europe:. Signatur Standort Beschreibung Exemplarstatus Notiz; Z Engl 1000 Mag: 1 (1970) - 36 (2005) Präsenzbestand: Z Engl 1000: 37 (2006) - 44 (2013) - Präsenzbestand With the help of various Gallic clans (e.g. But soon Caesar began to impose Roman laws into that land, which insulted the Gallic tribes. By the late centuries of the empire much of the population was located in the Saône River valley at the foot of Fourvière. Fortunately for Lugdunum, the would-be emperor and his army hurried into Italy, defeated Otho, and was in turn defeated by Vespasian and the army of the East, bringing the chaos of the Year of the Four Emperors to an end. The appearance of Germanic given and family names becomes noticeable in Gallia/Francia from the middle of the 7th century on, most notably in powerful families, indicating that the centre of gravity had definitely shifted. The area became a Roman province in 121 BC originally under the name Gallia Transalpina (Transalpine Gaul). Its depth and swampy valley had been an obstacle to travel and communication to the east. Routledge. On the 19th of February, 197, Severus again attacked Clodius Albinus to the northwest of the city. Lugdunum became the capital of a much smaller region containing only two cities besides Lugdunum: Autun and Langres. The new provinces were grouped in larger administrative districts. It is a story that is repeated in many places in Gaul. Nero committed suicide in June and Galba was proclaimed emperor. Nevertheless, the Christian community either survived or was reconstituted, and under Bishop Irenaeus it continued to grow in size and influence. At the same time they built the Via Domitia, the first Roman road in Gaul, connecting Italy to Hispania. B.C.—invading Celts, who were called Gauls by the Romans. Their ashes were thrown into the Rhône. Vienne quickly laid down weapons and paid a "ransom" to forestall plundering. Source: Ancient Eu . Caesar said that the Belgae were separated from the Celtic Gauls to their south by "language, custom and laws" (lingua, institutis, legibus) but he did not go into detail, except to mention that he learnt from his contacts that the Belgae had some ancestry … Gaulish spelling and pronunciation of Latin are apparent in several 5th century poets and transcribers of popular farces. Lyon is an important city in France, located at the confluence of the Saone with the Rhone, between the Massif Central and the Alps. This reorganization standardized size and status of provinces, splitting many of the larger. The Christians publicly confessed their faith and were imprisoned until the arrival of Legate of Lugdonensis, who gave his authority to the persecution.  They spoke the now extinct British language, which evolved into the Breton, Cornish, and Welsh languages. A former religious center of Gallic society, Lugdunum (Lyon) became the capital of Roman Gaul. In its 1st century, Lugdunum was many times the object of attention or visits by the emperors or the imperial family. Within 50 years Lugdunum increased greatly in size and importance, becoming the administrative centre of Roman Gaul and Germany. The imperial mint established a branch in 15 BC, during the reign of Augustus, and produced coinage for the next three centuries (see picture). Parts of eastern Gaul were incorporated into the provinces Raetia (15 BC) and Germania Superior (AD 83). Gallia, ancient designation for the land S and W of the Rhine, W of the Alps, and N of the Pyrenees. At Périgueux, France, a luxurious Roman villa called the Domus of Vesunna, built round a garden courtyard surrounded by a colonnaded peristyle enriched with bold tectonic frescoing, has been handsomely protected in a modern glass-and-steel structure that is a fine example of archaeological museum-making (see external link). After two days of siege, the Celts broke the defences of the temple and everyone inside was killed. All of the information on Lyon France from the time of the Roman Empire suggests that this city was a vital stronghold and center of commerce and communications. The proximity to the frontier with Germany made Lugdunum strategically important for the next four centuries, as a staging ground for further Roman expansion into Germany, as well as the "de facto" capital city and administrative centre of the Gallic provinces. '2 , An early interpretation of Gaulish Lugduno as meaning "Desired Mountain" is recorded in a gloss in the 9th-century Endlicher's Glossary, but this may in fact reflect a native Frankish speaker's folk-etymological attempt at linking the first element of the name, Lugu- (which, by the time this gloss was composed, would have been pronounced lu'u, the -g- having become silent) with the similar-sounding Germanic word for "love", *luβ. In reciprocal appreciation, Nero contributed the same amount to the rebuilding of Lugdunum after a similarly devastating fire a few years later. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The Romans easily imposed their administrative, economic, artistic (especially in terms of monumental art and architecture) and literary culture. The loyalty of Lugdunum to Nero was not appreciated by his successor, Galba, who punished some of Nero's supporters by confiscations of property. Gaul is a formable nation in Europe, representing a unification of the disparate Gallic tribes from Armorica to Rhaetia, and can be formed by any country in the Gallic or Belgae culture groups with a capital in one of the main Gallic regions. p. 367. As the Western Empire disintegrated in the 5th century, Lugdunum became the principal city of the Burgundian kingdom. Vaduz is the capital city of the Principality of Liechtenstein, though not the largest city, it is the best-known city internationally of the principality, seat of the national parliament , a population of about 5,342 and a total land area of 6.7 square miles, located along the Rhine and most of whom are Roman Catholic. The Roman Republic began its takeover of Celtic Gaul in 121 BC, when it conquered and annexed the southern reaches of the area. ), Celtic and other languages in ancient Europe (2008), pp. Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul.  Gauls continued writing some inscriptions in the Gaulish language, but switched from the Greek alphabet to the Latin alphabet during the Roman period. The capital is in the regions of Celtica, Belgica, Armorica, Aquitania (except for Biggeronia), Transalpine Gaul, or Rhaetia; Is not Gaul; Is not a Tier 3 formable; Is not AI-controlled or owns at least 100 territories; Allow. The sack resulted in a power vacuum. Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul.The city was founded in 43 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus.It served as the capital of the Roman province Gallia Lugdunensis.For 300 years after its foundation Lugdunum was the most important city … The Visigoths made Toulouse their capital, and they established themselves as protectors of those who were there when they arrived. Map of the Battle of Pharsalus, 48 BC. The name Gallia and its equivalents continued in use, at least in writing, until the end of the Merovingian period in the 750s. The enormous dome over the center of the cathedral, which was converted into a mosque by the Ottomans, shows its Christian heritage. There is no record of a cause or a triggering event but mob violence against the Christians in the streets culminated in a public interrogation in the forum by the tribune and town magistrates. The Mediterranean settlements on the coast continued to be threatened by the powerful Gallic tribes to the north and in 122 BC the Roman general Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus campaigned in the area and defeated the Allobroges followed by Quintus Fabius Maximus against the Arverni under King Bituitus in 121 BC.. Gallo-Roman Museum: The Capital of Gaul is here to see - See 909 traveler reviews, 433 candid photos, and great deals for Lyon, France, at Tripadvisor. Tooltip: Roman settlers will move to Cisalpine Gaul. The prior Bronze Age displayed that many of these areas in Gaul, could and were highly efficient in Eurasian markets without the Roman stability or governance. The population declined due to plague, and people migrated to the cities. Albinus retreated with his forces toward Lugdunum. Roman Gaul War Stock Photos and Images (267) Narrow your search: Vectors | Black & white | Cut Outs. Claudius was born in Lugdunum in 10 BC and lived there for at least two years. Lugdunum was no longer the chief city and administrative capital of Gaul. He first used the Huns against the Burgundians, and these mercenaries destroyed Worms, killed king Gunther, and pushed the Burgundians westward. The Burgundians were resettled by Aëtius near Lugdunum in 443. Two emperors, Claudius and Caracalla, were born in Lugdunum. There was trade with Campania for ceramics and wine, and use of some Italic-style home furnishings before the Roman conquest. Parisii Gaul Parisii. Before Roman occupation, Gaul was a rich, distinct society despite its multitude of separate tribes. A rhetoric contest was held in which the losers were required to expunge their work with their tongues. The Druidic religion was suppressed by Emperor Claudius I, and in later centuries Christianity was introduced. There was not a capital of Gallia (Roman Gaul). Lugdunum: 'Its position led to its becoming the centre of Agrippa's road system in Gaul, the capital of the Augustan province of Lugdunensis, and the financial centre of Gallia Comata The Lyonnais company of boatmen (nautae) was the largest and "most honored" in Gaul. The armies fought an initial, inconclusive engagement at Tinurtium (Tournus), about 60 km up the Saône from Lugdunum. Main article: Gallo-Roman religion. Although the destructiveness of the fire is described in a letter from Seneca to Lucilius, archeologists have not been able to uncover a confirmatory layer of ash. In 44 BC, ten years after the conquest of Gaul, Julius Caesar was assassinated and civil war erupted. The event was described in a letter from the Christians in Lugdunum to counterparts in Asia, later retrieved and preserved by Eusebius. Citizens of Lugdunum contributed four million sesterces to the recovery after the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD. The heavy concentration of trade made Lugdunum one of the most cosmopolitan cities of Gaul, and inscriptions attest to a large foreign-born population, especially Italians, Greeks, and immigrants from the oriental provinces of Asia Minor and Syria-Palestine. Albinus was a former legate of Britannia and commanded legions in Britain and Gaul. Generals Marcus Antonius Primus and Gnaeus Julius Agricola were both born in Gaul, as were emperors Claudius and Caracalla. A major shrine of the Phrygian goddess Cybele was built in nearby Vienne, and she also seems to have found special favor in Lugdunum in the late 1st century and 2nd century. From its conquest in 50 BC to 314 AD Gallia was divided into three Roman provinces. It is unknown who commissioned the Via Aquitania, but it is likely that Domitius Ahenobarbus built it in order to easily exact tributes from the newly conquered tribes.RouteThe Via Aquitania was the main Roman road in the province of Aquitania. Almost immediately afterwards, most of Gaul came under the rule of the Merovingians, the first kings of a proto-France. The altar, with its distinctive vertical end poles, was engraved with the names of 60 Gallic tribes, and was featured prominently on coins from the Lugdunum mint for many years. Gaul (gôl), Lat. , Rome acquired a Gallic province across the Alps. In 177 it also became the first in Gaul to suffer persecution and martyrdom. The republic came into existence in Rome in the aftermath of the sack of the city by forces from the Gallic Empire, which was at that point fighting for independence from the Roman Empire. Plan of Lugdunum, which became the capital of Roman Gaul. Historical and archeological evidence indicates that Lugdunum never fully recovered from the devastation of this battle. In 10 BC his son Claudius (the future emperor) was born there. Capital of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, it is the second largest urban area of the country by population after Paris. Cities like Augusta Treverorum (Trier) eclipsed Lugdunum in importance. Before 22 BC Gaul had three geographical divisions, one of which was divided into multiple Roman provinces: After 22 BC the Romans divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, the Tres Galliae (the 3 Gauls): The Romans divided these huge provinces into civitates corresponding more or less with the pre-Conquest communities or polities sometimes described misleadingly as "tribes," such as the Aedui, Allobroges, Bellovaci, and Sequani (see List of Celtic tribes) but the civitates were too large and in turn were divided into smaller units, pagi, a term that eventually became the modern French word "pays". He was joined by an army under Lucius Novius Rufus, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. 153–184. Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD. His request was granted and an engraved bronze plaque of the speech (the Claudian Tables) was erected in Lugdunum.  These administrative groupings would be taken over by the Romans in their system of local control, and these civitates would also be the basis of France's eventual division into ecclesiastical bishoprics and dioceses, which would remain in place—with slight changes—until the French revolution. This definition became the basis of the later Roman province of Belgica. It remains to this day poorly understood: current knowledge of the Celtic religion is based on archeology and via literary sources from several isolated areas such as Ireland and Wales. According to the historian Cassius Dio, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered Munatius Plancus and Lepidus, governors of central and Transalpine Gaul respectively, to found a city for a group of Roman refugees who had been expelled from Vienne (a town about 30 km to the south) by the Allobroges and were encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. Below them were the workmen and slaves. The Roman Republic began its takeover of Celtic Gaul in 121 BC, when it conquered and annexed the southern reaches of the area. The Roman Republic's influence began in southern Gaul. "Goths". The country was divided into four provinces: Narbonensis, Aquitania to the west and south of the Loire, Celtica (or Lugdunensis) in central France between the Loire and … Still, this was only a small part of Gaul, which consisted of today’s France, Belgium, parts of Holand and Switzerland. For 300 years after its foundation Lugdunum was the most important city in north-western Europe. The capital of Gaul was the ancient Lugdunum (modern Lyon). Learn how and when to remove this template message, Provisional Government of the French Republic, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Roman_Gaul&oldid=986471669, 2nd-century BC establishments in the Roman Republic, 5th-century disestablishments in the Roman Empire, States and territories established in the 2nd century BC, States and territories disestablished in the 5th century, Articles lacking in-text citations from August 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 November 2020, at 02:14. The Vandals moved into Spain, and then in 429 AD, crossed over the Strait of Gibraltar and overran North Africa, traveling steadily along the coast until they captured Carthage in 439 AD. In March 68 AD, a Romanized Aquitainian named Caius Julius Vindex, who was governor of Gallia Lugdunensis led an uprising intended to replace Nero with Galba, a Roman governor of Spain. The Roman Empire had difficulty responding to all the barbarian raids, and Flavius Aëtius had to use these tribes against each other in order to maintain some Roman control. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin, provincia, pl. The new governor bore the title of consularis. When Boudica and the Celts arrived in Roman capital of Colchester, the city was defenceless and the townspeople, when confronted by the advancing army, fell back to the temple of Claudius.  Epigraphic evidence suggests Munatius Plancus was the principal founder of Lugdunum. Legio I Minervia remained camped in Lugdunum from 198 to 211. 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