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The Utilitarian Approach •Utilitarianism holds that the morally right course of action in any situation is the one that produces the greatest balance of benefits over harms for everyone affected •The focus is on the consequence of the action: the greatest good for the greatest number •If … John Stuart Mill, a great 19th century utilitarian figure, spoke of benefits and harms not in terms of pleasure and pain alone but in terms of the quality or intensity of such pleasure and pain. The theory of utilitarianism can be applied in business in many ways. What is utilitarianism? Web. For example, giving a dry biscuit to a starving man will reduce his pain. Batman has been in a position to kill the Joker dozens of times. As an ethical theory, it was supported by the works of John Stewart Mill and Jeremy Bentham. Utilitarianism is a moral theory, which works as a form of consequentialism helps individuals to assess whether an action is good or bad. In business, the management may decide to increase the wages and benefits of their employees if it improves the wellbeing or promotes the happiness of their employees. Some of the moral philosophers associated with this theory include Jeremy Bentham, David Hume, Henry Sidgwick and many others. necessitate a refutation of utilitarian ethics. Web. Utilitarianism (pronounced yoo-TILL-ih-TARE-ee-en-ism) is one of the main schools of thought in modern ethics (also known as moral philosophy). Every business focuses on making and increasing more profits as its primary goal, which may lead them to use the means, which may be considered immoral, unethical or illegal. Bentham, Jeremy. Businesses can apply the concept of consequentialism in their operations even though it may contradict the moral and ethical systems that are in place. "Rule" Utilitarian Ethics An example of rule utilitarianism in business is tiered pricing for a product or service for different types of customers. Kitchener, ON: Batoche Books, 2000. The classic form of results-based ethics is called utilitarianism. This concept is referred to as effective altruism whose supporters claim to want to do the most good they can do. For example, giving a dry biscuit to a starving man will reduce his pain. : Ethics provides a set of standards for behavior that helps us decide how we … However, the challenge that utilitarianism poses to other views is whether the effects of disobeying and breaking these moral rules would be worse or not. As such, we share certain common conditions […] In this regard, the business will be positively applying utilitarianism when they can balance the principles of pleasure and pain and how they can influence their performance. For example, by selling quality and safe products, a business will be increasing its intrinsic value while meeting the needs of their customers at the same time. Examples of Utilitarian Ethics One example of utilitarianism in business is the practice of having tiered pricing for a product or service to different types of customers. Specifically, decisions that we make as consumers. The Utilitarian Approach assesses an action in terms of its consequences or outcomes; i.e., the net benefits and costs to all stakeholders on an individual level. Eggleston, Ben. Utilitarianism provides a guiding framework of decision making rooted in social benefit which helps direct business toward more ethical behavior. Suikkanen, Jussi. For instance, businesses that commit themselves to the principle of consequentialism may encourage their employees to act as they wish as long as the essential outcome will be to the benefit of the organization. ... Kantian Approach to Business Ethics just from $13,9 / page. Saving a loving mother from drowning will make her, her husband, children, other relatives, and friends very happy. People who ascribe to the classical utilitarians’ school of thought consider actions right if it maximizes the overall wellbeing of society and wrong if it does not maximize the overall wellness of the society. By ensuring their employees are satisfied and happy at a personal standard, the business will also be putting themselves on the path to success. One very good example is the airlines industry. Ethical behaviour of people doing business is very important in our society. It is also the most common approach to moral reasoning used in business because of the way in which it accounts for costs and benefits. All Rights Reserved. This aspect of utilitarianism suggests that actions are good for the greatest wellbeing of the society or many people. Therefore, actions are morally wrong if they lead to unhappiness. Others, however, insist that agents should conform to rules that maximize utility. Bentham’s perspectives on utilitarianism suggest that the consequences of an action should bring happiness not only to an individual but also the community around him or her (121-123). Utility measures the benefits and disadvantages (drawbacks) of consuming a product or service. We have also applied it to the ethics of raising animals for food. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), a British philosopher, social reformer, and jurist, founded utilitarianism. 14th Jul 2017 Philosophy Reference this Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. One approach maintains that we judge actions by their consequences and the other maintains that we judge actions by appeal to rules. The word total is important here: if you act ethically according to utilitarianism, you’re not maximizing yourhappiness, but the total happiness of the whole human race. Happiness and unhappiness also mean the absence of pain and the presence of pain respectively. Market Business News - The latest business news. According to Eggleston (453), welfarism is the understanding that the wrongness or rightness of operations depends on society’s conceptions of welfare or wellbeing. If the joker died, there would be less unhappiness. Definition and examples, utility is the pleasure or satisfaction that people derive from. For example, a business may manufacture and sell substandard and unsafe products in their quest for more. Utilitarianism in the workplace focuses on ethics, democracy, rights and responsibilities within the business … The application of this theory can either be positive or negative. However, utilitarianism, unlike other forms of consequentialism, takes into account the interests of everybody equally. Most businesses consider this while making their hiring decisions, hoping that their new employees would live to the expectations by doing the best they can for the greater good of the business. The Common Good Approach regards all individuals as part of a larger community. Utilitarianism, in normative ethics, a tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill according to which an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if … It strives to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number while creating the least amount of harm or preventing the greatest amount of suffering. It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military force or war. For example, the airline industry offers first class, business class and economy class seats on many of their airplanes. Also read utilitarianism and business ethics essay. The third element that businesses need to understand as to how the principle of utility applies to their operations is individualism. When the Joker escapes from prison, which he always does, and kills again, won’t it be Batman’s fault? A business applying this element should engage in activities that increase its profits while at the same time serve the best interests of its customers, the community, and the government. The first element is consequentialism, which is the understanding that the wrongness or rightness of actions is entirely determined by their actions (Mack 64; Suikkanen 1). Proponents also disagree on whether we should maximize average or total utility. Batman’s doctrine is ‘don’t kill,’ regardless of how bad a person is. Whether actions lead to unhappiness or happiness depends on the circumstances. However, giving a dry biscuit to a man who is dying of thirst will increase his pain. Consequentialism states that the consequences of an action are the only standard of right and wrong. © 2020 - Market Business News. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that suggests that the best actions are those that maximize utility. In economics, utility is the pleasure or satisfaction that people derive from consuming a product or service. get custom paper. It makes people have the urge to be as effective as possible to change the world and make it a better place. If not entirely his fault, won’t it be just a tiny bit his fault? Believers in utilitarianism disagree on several points. A New Mechanism to Detect Unknown Linux/IOS Attacks, AI of video game NPCs on the similarities and differences of human and machine intelligence, Analyzing Social Media Interaction in Supermarkets, Application of the Utilitarian Theory in Treatment of Criminals, Breast Cancer Risk among Black Women in the United States of America, Competition in the Global Automobile Industry, Counterterrorism and American Presence Overseas, Design project report for Engineering Mechanics, Employee Motivation strategies at Qatar’s First Finance Company, How national culture influences organizational strategy, John Hopkins Marketing and Health Care System, Reflective Portfolios: Tools For Training Teachers, Slavery in Tennessee and Abolitionist Movement, Substance Abuse As a Hindrance To Achievement Of Adolescent Health Policy, Summary of the capability and features of three well-known NMSs, Traditional learning vis-à-vis Online Learning, Academic Dissertation Chapters Writing Help, Cheap Essay Writing Service That Lets You Save 30%, Research Paper Writing Service: Top-rated Writers Online, Academic BSN Capstone Project Writing Help, Academic Nursing Admission Essay Writing Help, Academic Nursing Research Paper Writing Help, Academic Nursing Research Proposal Writing, Academic Nursing Dissertation Writing Help. “Utilitarianism.” Elsevier, 2012. However, what about saving a suicide bomber from drowning, especially if he is about t… The second theory, called deontology, will be addressed later. The greatest happiness of the greatest number of people is the guiding principle of behavior. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. 2391 words (10 pages) Essay. The second element that businesses require to apply utilitarianism is welfarism. According to this doctrine, actions are morally right if their consequences lead to happiness. Saving a loving mother from drowning will make her, her husband, children, other relatives, and friends very happy. When debriefing an ethical dilemma, the Common Good Approach can be useful when the issue involves, or should involve, the overall picture or environment. Doing what is right is obeying your duties and the rule that guide a business. Our moral belief about life changes over time. The first theory, utilitarianism, we will consider in this lecture. Philosophers say that utilitarianism is a version of consequentialism. Web. However, what about saving a suicide bomber from drowning, especially if he is about to kill dozens of people? A theory of ethical behavior, utilitarianism holds that an action is "right" to the extent that it benefits people or society, either by creating happiness, improving well-being, or reducing suffering. They do not necessarily refer to a “utilitarian calculus,” but whenever they take stock of what is to be gained and what might be lost in any significant decision (e.g., in a cost-benefit analysis), they make a utilitarian determination. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. ... Business analysts, legislators, and scientists weigh daily the resulting benefits and harms of policies when deciding, for example, whether to invest resources in a certain public project, whether to approve a new drug, or whether to ban a certain pesticide. The fourth element required to apply utilitarianism in business is aggregation, which is the notion that the wrongness or rightness of actions depends on their ability to average the benefits brought to all individuals. utilitarianism was developed by jeremy bentham and is a teleological theory where the moral value of an action can be judged by the likely consequences the aforementioned bentham lived in an era of great social ... What is the utilitarian approach to business ethics and examine its weaknesses? Such rules guide individuals on what will bring out the best consequences. However, it should be stressed that since utilitarianism changes people’s lives in many ways, the same can be replicated in the businesses or companies that these people do or work for. It characteristically encourages individuals to act in whatever ways they want as long as their actions lead them to the greatest levels of wellness. Utilitarianism has, The Oxford Living Dictionaries say the following regarding the term: “1. WHAT IS ETHICS? In contrast to Utilitarianism, deontological theories identify commands and prohibitions that are determined as binding without regard to consequences. The utilitarian approach.Business can utilize utilatarian approach to ensuring outcome of various situations to help the maximum amount of stakeholders in the company. Would proponents of utilitarianism advise him to kill the joker? “Utilitarianism and welfarism.” The Journal of Philosophy, 76(9), 463-489, 1979. Web. The action of saving him will result in great unhappiness. Some believe that we should choose actions according to their likely results. “Utilitarianism ethics in healthcare.” International Journal of the Computer, the Internet, and Management, 12(3), 63-72, 2004. In this article, I suggest and support a utilitarian approach to business ethics. The doctrine that actions are right if they are useful or for the benefit of a majority.”, “2. Therefore, an action is considered good if it brings joy to the most significant number of people in society and vice versa. The notion of ethical business practices has led to the formation of theories including the utilitarian theory, rights theory, justice theory, caring theory, and virtues theory, which have since been integral in the understanding of business ethics. Utilitarianism is already widely used as a business ethic approach, although it is not well developed in the literature. An example of this is an employee who resorted to stealing as a way of getting even to his or her supervisor who has unjustly treated him or her. 2.2 Utilitarian Ethics Utilitarian ethics is a normative ethical system that is primarily concerned with the consequences of ethical decisions; therefore it can be described as a teleological theory or consequentialist theory, which are essentially the same thing, both having a notion that the consequence of the act is the most important determinant of the act being moral or not. Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach to Ethics. Wellbeing of the moral and ethical systems that are determined to be good or bad will his... Conditions [ … ] necessitate a refutation of utilitarian ethics under utilitarianism, unlike other forms of consequentialism individuals! They want as long as their actions lead them to the principles of morals and.. The theory, it was supported by the works of John Stewart Mill and Bentham... 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