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western sahara president

western sahara president

[27] This was discussed by the United Nations Security Council in 2000, and envisioned an autonomous Western Sahara Authority (WSA), which would be followed after five years by the referendum. [101], Similarly, the exploitation of phosphate mines in Bou Craa has led to charges of international law violations and divestment from several European states.[102]. Some of the films were made by the refugees themselves. The European Union fishing agreements with Morocco include Western Sahara. Spanish decolonization proceeded more slowly, but internal political and social pressures for it in mainland Spain built up towards the end of Francisco Franco's rule. The official Moroccan government name for Western Sahara is the "Southern Provinces", consisting of the Río de Oro and Sagui… [112] The NUSW was structured at the local, regional, and national levels and concentrated on four areas: the occupied territories and emigration, information and culture, political and professional development, and foreign affairs. In a previously confidential legal opinion (published in February 2010, although it was forwarded in July 2009), the European Parliament's Legal Service opined that fishing by European vessels under a current EU – Morocco fishing agreement covering Western Sahara's waters is in violation of international law. [115] One such artist was Spanish street artist MESA, who travelled to the Sahrawi refugee camps in 2011 and displayed his own graffiti throughout the landscape. [77], A number of former Polisario officials who have defected to Morocco accuse the organisation of abuse of human rights and sequestration of the population in Tindouf.[78][79]. The Algerian government has consistently refused, claiming it has neither the will nor the right to negotiate on the behalf of the Polisario Front. The President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is the head of state of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), a government in exile based in the Sahrawi refugee camps of Tindouf, Algeria. In welcoming President Ghali, NLC President, Ayuba Wabba reiterated the: “collective demand that Morocco must be isolated in the global space by all countries, not just in Africa but in the entire world until Western Sahara gains sovereignty, free from colonial control.” They are of mixed Arab-Berber descent, but claim descent from the Beni Hassan, an Arab tribe that migrated across the desert in the 11th century. The Polisario Front fought for independence and the U.N. brokered the 1991 cease-fire and established a peacekeeping mission to monitor the truce and help prepare a referendum on the territory’s future. [99], In December 2014, it became known that Seabird Exploration operated controversial seismic surveys offshore Western Sahara, in violation of the 2002 Hans Corell legal opinion.[100]. The Algerian-backed Polisario Front, which fought a war from 1975 to 1991, demands a … [17] During Marinid dynasty rule, the Beni Hassan rebelled but were defeated by the Sultan and escaped beyond the Saguia el-Hamra dry river. The UN attempted to settle these disputes through a visiting mission in late 1975, as well as a verdict from the International Court of Justice (ICJ). The contemporary history of the territory has experienced long-term international presence and occupation that has deeply influenced the cultural practices of the people, such as languages spoken throughout the territory and its institutions. As of January 2007, the plan had not been made public, though the Moroccan government claimed that it was more or less complete.[32]. The population is estimated at just over 500,000,[3] of which nearly 40% live in Laayoune, the largest city in Western Sahara. [116] His canvases of choice were destroyed walls, which he brought back to life through his art. [24][25] Hostilities ceased in a 1991 cease-fire, overseen by the peacekeeping mission MINURSO, under the terms of a UN Settlement Plan. [107] These types of exchange programs that successfully create cross-border and cross-cultural relationships reinforce the usage of the Spanish language throughout subsequent generations of Sahrawi children. The reasons for its widespread usage was due to the necessity of communicating with Spanish leadership and administrators throughout the territory, who ultimately established institutions modeled after those of Spain. Morocco and organizations such as France Libertés consider Algeria to be directly responsible for any crimes committed on its territory, and accuse the country of having been directly involved in such violations.[50]. His father, Hassan II of Morocco, initially supported the referendum idea in principle in 1982, and signed contracts with Polisario and the UN in 1991 and 1997. Morocco has been repeatedly criticized for its actions in Western Sahara by international human rights organizations including: The POLISARIO has received criticism from the French organization France Libertes on its treatment of Moroccan prisoners of war,[72] and on its general behaviour in the Tindouf refugee camps in reports by the Belgian commercial counseling society ESISC. One such artist is Mohamed Sayad, a Sahrawi artist that has been transforming the refugee camp landscape by creating works of art amongst the devastation in camps that have existed for four decades. The Morocco-controlled parts of Western Sahara are divided into several provinces that are treated as integral parts of the kingdom. Moroccan claims of Polisario terrorism has generally little to no support abroad, with the US, EU, AU and UN all refusing to include the group on their lists of terrorist organizations. By 1974–75 the government issued promises of a referendum on independence in Western Sahara. 'Western Sahara', 266", "Explosive Ordnance Disposal and technical survey in Polisario-controlled areas of Western Sahara,", "Western Sahara under Polisario Control: Summary Report of Field Mission to the Sahrawi Refugee Camps (near Tindouf, Algeria)", "MINURSO complaint to the UN Security Council (Spanish)", "Secretary General's report to Security Council on Western Sahara, 19 April 2006 (pdf file)", "Western Sahara: Economic Considerations", "Western Sahara: Preparing the GOM For Autonomy and Negotiations with the Polisario", "Rep. Pitts lauds protection of Sahrawis in Morocco trade pact", "Western Sahara excluded from EFTA-Morocco free trade agreement", "Western Sahara "not part of EFTA-Morocco free trade, "Upstream Online: Total turns its back on Dakhla block, 2004", "Last oil company withdraws from Western Sahara", "Korsvold og SeaBird-sjefen fikk protestbrev fra det okkuperte Vest-Sahara", "European Parliament's lawyers declare EU fishing illegal", "In remote Western Sahara, prized phosphate drives controversial investments", "L'Actuel Maroc, no. In 2013, the festival screened over 15 films from around the world including comedies, short films, animations, and documentaries. Sayad's graffiti depicts aspects of Sahrawi culture and includes actual Sahrawi people as his subjects. Nationalism and Intra-State Conflicts in the Postcolonial World. ", "Sahrawi Refugee Children in a Spanish Host Program", "Local Human Development in contexts of permanent crisis: Women's experiences in Western Sahara", "A Desert Film Festival Complete with Camels", "These artists are transforming the dreary environment of the Saharawi refugee camps", Learn how and when to remove this template message, The United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO), The Sahrawi Association of Victims of Grave Human Rights Violations Committed by the Moroccan State (ASVDH), Association for the Families of Sahrawi Prisoners and the Disappeared (AFAPREDESA), Western Sahara, Landmine Monitor Report 2008, "Jacob Mundy – "Seized of the Matter". The Polisario Front has won formal recognition for SADR from 46 states, and was extended membership in the African Union. "[97] After pressures from corporate ethics-groups, Total S.A. pulled out in late 2004. [92], Due to the disputed nature of Moroccan sovereignty over the territory, the application of international accords to Western Sahara is highly ambiguous. In November 2010 Moroccan security forces entered Gadaym Izik camp in the early hours of the morning, using helicopters and water cannon to force people to leave. [116], This article is about the geographical area. The Museum of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army is located in this refugee camp. ", Mohamed Elyazghi au Matin du Sahara: Solution politique au Sahara et refondation de nos relations avec Alger, "Amnesty International | Working to Protect Human Rights", "Western Sahara – Sahara Occidental – Akhbar Es-Sahra 2", Morocco's Memorandum to UN unveils Algiers' responsibility in Sahara conflict, political parties, "Morocco/Western Sahara: Broken Promises: The Equity and Reconciliation Commission and its Follow-up", "Morocco/Western Sahara: No more half measures: Addressing enforced disappearances in Morocco and Western Sahara", "Morocco/ Western Sahara: Further Information on UA 16/08 – Fear of unfair imprisonment/ Prisoners of conscience/ Health concern", "Morocco/ Western Sahara: Three years' imprisonment for putting a profile of Prince Moulay Rachid on Facebook", "Morocco/Western Sahara: New arrests and allegations of torture of Sahrawi human rights defenders", "Morocco/Western Sahara: Justice must begin with torture inquiries", "Morocco/Western Sahara: Torture of detainees must end", "Morocco/Western Sahara: Torture in the "anti-terrorism" campaign – the case of Témara detention centre", "Morocco/Western Sahara: Briefing to the Committee against torture (November 2003)", "Morocco/Western Sahara: reports of secret detention and torture on the rise", "Morocco and Western Sahara Human Rights", "Morocco/Western Sahara: Activists Need Fair Trial", "Western Sahara: Keeping It Secret – The United Nations Operation in the Western Sahara", "Swedish photographer expelled from Western Sahara a day after his arrest", "Journalist assaulted in the name of Moroccan control of Western Sahara", "Journalists working in Western Sahara face assaults, arrests and harassment", "Western Sahara, government corruption and palace life are all off-limits for the press", "Two Norwegian journalists threatened with expulsion", "Morocco puts US censorship busting site Anonymizer.com on its black list", "Appeal court upholds exorbitant damages award against Journal Hebdomadaire", "Report of the OHCHR to Western Sahara & the refugee camps in Tindouf 2006", "Human rights in Morocco & Western Sahara", "Morocco: Protect And Preserve Mass Grave Sites", "Western Sahara: UPDATE – Human rights defenders on hunger strike in protest at continued arbitrary detention", "Western Sahara: Severe beating of human rights defender, Mr Mohammed al-Tahleel by security forces", "Western Sahara: Torture and solitary confinement of human rights defender Mr Yahya Mohamed el Hafed Aaza", "Western Sahara: Systematic repression of human rights defenders", Harcelement a l'encontre de Mme. In 1997, the Houston Agreement attempted to revive the proposal for a referendum but likewise has hitherto not had success. Landmine Action UK undertook preliminary survey work by visiting the Polisario-controlled area of Western Sahara in October 2005 and February–March 2006. It became a protectorate of Spain in the 19th century and was later claimed by Morocco, Mauritania, and local inhabitants. [citation needed]. All trade and other economic activities are controlled by the Moroccan government (as its de facto southern province). Western Sahara conflict flares: For decades, the Sahrawi nomads of the Western Sahara have demanded independence from Morocco, which took control of the region in the mid 1970s after Spanish colonial forces withdrew. Ghali has served as an historic figure and played a key role in the struggle of the Sahrawi people for self-determination and independence from Morocco. [75][clarification needed] Jacob Mundi[76] considers this report as a part of the Moroccan propaganda designed to discredit the Polisario Front. In the 11th century, the Maqil Arabs (fewer than 200 individuals) settled in Morocco (mainly in the Draa River valley, between the Moulouya River, Tafilalt and Taourirt). Spain began rapidly to divest itself of most of its remaining colonial possessions. Depending on the century, Roman-era sources describe the area as inhabited by Gaetulian Autololes or the Gaetulian Daradae tribes. Families were broken up by the dispute. Rabat – To Algeria and Polisario’s dismay, South African President and current Chair of the African Union (AU) Cyril Ramaphosa defended the AU’s limited role in efforts to resolve the Western Sahara dispute on Sunday. The Moroccan and Mauritanian annexations were resisted by the Polisario Front, which had gained backing from Algeria. Morocco was also allowed to keep its army in the area and retain control over all security issues during both the autonomy years and the election. While the area can experience flash flooding in the spring, there are no permanent streams. It also provided further detail on the referendum process in order to make it harder to stall or subvert. According to a NATO delegation, MINURSO election observers stated in 1999, as the deadlock continued, that "if the number of voters does not rise significantly the odds were slightly on the SADR side". [40] The population is primarily made up of nomads who engage in herding camels back and forth between the Tindouf area and Mauritania. The area is patrolled by Polisario forces,[81] and access is restricted, even among Sahrawis, due to the harsh climate of the Sahara, the military conflict and the abundance of land mines. Number was highly politically significant due to the parliament 's lower house were deemed reasonably and. 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