The first act of war took place on May 8, 1945 and was known as the Sétif massacre. By investigating the violent colonization techniques used by the French military which resulted in 850,000 Algerian deaths and the French social and political policies that placed the Algerians at the bottom of the social hierarchy, this thesis shows how the actions by the French during the colonial era led to the rise of Algerian resistance movements. There was a large discrepancy in Algeria because although Algeria was a department in France, majority of its population languished in poverty unlike any white Frenchman. It is certainly a war of It’s just Islam at work again. The French entered Algeria in the 1840’s using troops and rifles. Even today, the war is known in the Arab world as the “revolution of a million martyrs” in honor of the high Algerian casualty rate. But also, it prevents misunderstanding prior to writing a critique. Considering the film’s disturbing depiction of the war and the director’s past it is a wonder Avoir vingt ans dans les Aurès made it past the censors. The atmosphere of repression and suspicion helped the government in other ways. According to Fanon’s analysis, violence was beneficial thirdly because it prevented the colonial masses from being pacified easily by demagogues. By the time the Algerian War ended in 1962, it had consumed the French 4 th Republic. The returning jihadists didn’t cause the Algerian Civil War, they simply empowered one of its factions. He assisted Ali and the three women in placing the bombs and died with them. Violence was advantageous secondly because it could cleanse the people, and it did in two ways. By the time the Algerian War ended in 1962, it had consumed the French 4 th Republic. in the late 80’s they came back and started a political party, and most of the algerian population voted for them, why ? May 1945: World War II —Victory in Europe. It firstly emboldened a person’s character by committing acts of terror. In celebration, Algerian forces, who fought for France, displayed an Algerian flag as a symbol of freedom. It is clear that the bulk of the violence occurred between 1992 and 1998, although the civil war continued at a lower level in subsequent years. In the Algerian War of Independence, violence was beneficial firstly because it unified the people. There was no harmony between the French and Algerian citizens as their relationship was based on racial violence. In the movie and in real life, the freedom fighters' goal … The Algerian war began in 1954 and lasted until 1962. This estimate was generated by the Algerian government, which has not made its data sources available. Last week, we discussed Algeria’s war of independence from France in the 1950s. Some commenters say that when the conflict in Syria ends, jihadists returning to Europe could start a civil war there, following the same process that happened in Algeria. Do I have you wrong? The Algerian war of independence was to say the least, a very prickly affair. With “some commenters” being whom exactly? With the election of President President Abdelaziz Bouteflika in 1999, the government began to wind the war down. We will now turn our attention to another conflict in that beautiful but unfortunate country: the civil war between the government and Islamist insurgents which took place between 1990 to 1998. That’s why the islamic world is such a perverted, depraved, evil mess, including the wealthy countries. In celebration, Algerian forces, who fought for France, displayed an Algerian flag as a symbol of freedom. We’re happy to let this question stand, but there are a variety of reasons why you may find it hard to get a good answer to this question on r/AskHistorians.. Firstly, school curricula and how they are taught vary strongly between different countries and even even different states. But the insurgents hardly needed anyone to encourage them to commit violence: they were perfectly capable of doing it themselves. The power to harm the French greatly boosted the confidence of these three women and made them very usable for independence. How did the Algerian War impact immigration in France? Some 300,000 Algerians died to win their nation's freedom. In 1988, in an incident called the “Black October Riots,” government security forces killed an estimated 500 protesters in Algiers. Instead, it employed three simple but direct methods: 1. It seemed that in order to beat the insurgency the government became worse than the insurgency. Towards the end of Pontecorvo’s film, the Arab Quarter eagerly participated in the week long protest because the FLN’s violent tactics were inspirational acts. The Algerian War of Independence, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War, ... the FLN was weak militarily at the beginning of the war. Getting really, really tired of Islam in Western countries. It was a shocking reversal, and one which passed nearly without comment in Western Europe and America. However, the times had changed in the 1960s. None of the Western powers wanted to see an Islamist government on the shores of the western Mediterranean, possibly stirring up trouble and exporting its ideology to European shores. He was a thief, illiterate and uneducated. During the war over one million Algerians lost their lives. The reason I ask is that for me, it is important to know the motivations of the writer, in order to fully understand what he is writing. When he replies ‘the GIA’ they cut his left ear off. He can be followed on Twitter. You’ve asked a question along the lines of ‘why didn’t I learn about X’. The achievement is not an inconsiderable one, especially when we contrast it to the ineptitude of the governments of Syria and Iraq in dealing with their own insurgent problems (although it must be said in fairness that the challenges faced by Iraq and Syria are very different from what existed in Algeria). This combination of reconciliation and repression worked. International pressure was mounting in France to give up her colonies because of the violent reactions of the Algerians. What was the last time you visited Spain and Italy? All started when russia invaded afghanistan and thousands of muslims from all around the world went there to defend the muslim people and gain military skills and get brainwashed by radicals, as you know the notion “nationalism” is illegal in islam as all the muslim world has to be one country, this is why you see people from everywhere going to fight in syria, iraq. The Algerian War evokes such bad memories because it was a particularly vicious conflict even by the standards of anti-colonial warfare. However, despite the justifications of violence, it was certainly a necessary ingredient for Algerian independence. These places are better than Qatar or the Emirates? But the fact remains that the Algerian government’s strategy and tactics were successful in first containing, and then destroying, a dedicated and well-established armed insurgency. Violence unified the people thirdly by establishing a national consciousness. Seriously? Algeria’s government received financial, intelligence, and moral support from European nations, while the insurgents were forced to rely on the uncertain support of worldwide Islamist networks. The Algerian War of Independence was a brutal and bitter struggle, one which continues to haunt both countries today. I have the impression from your article that you think what the Algerian Government did was a good thing. The film successfully justifies the violent tactics used by the FLN against the French settlers by showing the benefits of violence and its necessity in Algeria’s case as described by Frantz Fanon in his book The Wretched of The Earth. And that, sir, makes you a scholar and a gentleman. The war occurred in the broader context of global decolonization movements and was a protracted struggle of guerrilla tactics, indiscriminate terror, and violence. Indeed. Released in 1972, René Vautier’s film is a gritty, realistic, and troubling account of the Algerian War. On July 3, 1957, Kennedy publicly called for the United States to support Algerian independence and oppose the French war to keep it. The government then banned the FIS and jailed thousands of its members. Women's unit of People's National Army parading at ceremonies commemorating November 1, 1954, launch of Algerian War of Independence. No one knew who to trust. 2However, the cycle of violence in Algeria did not start with the French-Algerian war, but during the French conquest of The Algerian negotiators insisted that everyone who remained in Algeria were to be Algerians, not French. At no point in the film did Ali La Pointe and El-Jafar give inspirational speeches. where civilians were sought out to be exploited in very violent manners. Riots ensued. The war was fought brutally on both sides, but the need for a violent independence struggle was deeply rooted in the violence French imperialism had imposed on Algeria for over a century. The creation of a pervasive climate of fear, in which no one would know who to trust. France became more entrenched in battle in 1957 after the FLN initiated a campaign of urban terrorism in the city of Algiers, which intentionally provoked a violent overreaction from the French army. View Answer. So this soldier's death is not framed by the dates recognized as being those of the Algerian conflict. Does Diamond trading in Africa lead to poverty? The first truth the Algerians realized was even though the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity were universal, as long as they were implemented by the French, they would be exclusively for the French. Finally, on March 18, 1962, at Évian-les-Bains, on the French side of Lake Geneva, a 98-page agreement was reached. It is frequently laid out in binary terms as a contest between the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN), which was fighting for Algerian independence, and France, its colonial ruler. Really? The Algerian Civil War was a civil war in Algeria fought between the Algerian Government and various Islamist rebel groups from 26 December 1991 (following a coup negating an Islamist electoral victory) to 8 February 2002. ... until a violent civil war broke out in the 1990s. 8 November 1942: Allied landings in Algeria and Morocco. France is part of the West so he is wrong. When the war started there were 200,000 Algerians living in France and 150,000 of those were employed. The film shows violence was the only tool to kick the French out of Algeria because it afforded certain benefits that other methods did not. Why was this struggle so violent? I happened to discuss the origins of the war with an Arabic-speaking Algerian laborer in Croatia in 2000. 2. A system that encourages war, slavery, theft, rape and indiscriminate mass murder will eventually poison any nation’s collective psyche. historian who has focused on the French-Algerian war, said that "the French-Algerian war was probably the most violent anti-colonial war of the twentieth century." 1. The conflict, never called a war by France's government, was finished. The civil war ended in a victory for the Algerian government. This system also encourages slavery and theft by forcing you to work for its benefit for approximately 50% of your time and will steal your resources continuously. Good luck with that one. Omar’s association with Ali’s violent behavior emboldened him to steal the microphone behind the French police and encourage the Algerian prisoners. The Setif massacre occurred on May 8, 1945, the day that Germany surrendered in World War II. It began on 1 November 1954, with the shooting by the FLN of two young French schoolteachers who had recently married and were on holiday in the Aurès mountains – the wife survived but the husband died. The same process won’t happen in Europe. In 1994 alone, dozens were murdered every day. France supported the government both overtly and covertly with intelligence information and at the diplomatic level. The Algerian war of independence MVZ489 Causes of Political Violence Lucie Sitarová 397539 June 2016 . Now it seems that went out of control and need to take steps to prevent the fire from spreading. Fanon notes violence united the Algerian people in three ways. Rather than see this happen, the military cancelled the elections after the first round, seized power, and removed reformist president Chadli Benjedid from office. The film successfully justified violence firstly by showing it as a natural reaction to centuries of French imperialism. Hence my question to Quintus. In 1830, mainland France was in trouble domestically. 3. Random roadblocks, arrests and detentions, and various government “decoy” Islamist groups, all added to the perception that the government was winning. The FLN’s resolution to use violent tactics made them indiscriminate. Algeria asked for help from the US and the west saying that this may be a new international terrorism problem, they said “it’s your own problem we don’t like to interfere”, at that time “islamist terrorism” wasn’t a well known thing. The aim of this article is to consider how Algeria's most prized achievement and treasured memory – the FLN's victory over the French in the war of liberation – has helped stimulate and sustain the violence that has blighted the country since independence. Analysis of All the Shah\'s Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror, Causes of the Early Industrial Revolution, India & South Asia Political & Social Issues. Violence was especially liked by the FLN because they possessed the power to harm and create fear. Though, to be fair, the Islamic Salvation Front was rather internally divided about what it thought about democracy. Algeria had seen a population explosion in the decades after independence in 1962, but the government had failed to provide infrastructure and employment opportunities on a sufficient scale. Al Qaeda vs the Soviets in the 1980s) and fight them when they go to far (e.g. The most frequently cited death toll is 150,000 up to 1998. So, we have to learn to be insurgents but also crush any further insurgencies in our movement(s). He rose to the top ranks of the FLN leadership without anything except his will to use violent means to kick the French out of Algeria. Read More: The Algerian War Of Independence, “Democracy is great—as long as our guy wins.”—The West. Algeria is a country where almost the entire population is Muslim, and where the Islamist faction had large popular support. They ask him the same question. Last week, we discussed Algeria’s war of independence from France in the 1950s. I’m sure the guy in the story would rather have his ears back and pay taxes to the Taliban than be deaf and disfigured and pay taxes to a “democracy”. But instead, it is just 1958. I explain the history and the details. Ali La Pointe’s little assistant, Petit Omar is an example. Pontecorvo’s film shows the numerous truths the Algerians came to understand and realize after 130 years of colonization. The Islamist groups began to splinter off and fight amongst themselves. The Algerian War evokes such bad memories because it was a particularly vicious conflict even by the standards of anti-colonial warfare. The three women who worked in the brothels are a prime example of this. It was created in 1954, so its numbers were not numerous. Introduction The war between France and the Algerian people, in the middle of the 20th century, was one of the deadliest and most cruel conflicts of its kind in that century. What now seems clear, however, is that atrocities were committed by both sides, but the majority of it must be laid at the feet of Islamist groups. The hooded men ask him if he supports the government or the GIA. Simone Haruko Smith from San Francisco on July 13, 2011: Wow, this is pretty intense. It is the battle-hardened algerian jihadists, trained in Afghanistan in the fight against the Soviet Union, who had the skills necessary to threaten the algerian government. The situation in the 1960s was no longer conducive for colonization especially because the colonial people could not be suppressed or pacified in any way. By 1995, the AIS and the GIA began openly to fight each other; the GIA refused to negotiate with the government, while the AIS favored a dialogue to end the conflict. The atmosphere of repression made the average citizen fearful of even being seen in public with a bearded man, who might be taken for an Islamist sympathizer. Curiously, the country where memory of the Algerian War matters most is, in some ways, the United States. Massive unemployment left large numbers of marginalized, angry youths with nothing to do but attend sermons by radicalized clerics. The Algerian War of Independence Nationalist parties had existed for many years, but they became increasingly radical as they realized that their goals were not going to be achieved through peaceful means. Give an order of events of the Algerian War of Independence. Did you get a look at the homeless in many American cities? Through the use of decoys, infiltrators, and agents-provocateurs, it supposedly fanned the flames of Islamist violence. Most RoK articles of this kind, by other authors, are rather overtly trying to push an agenda, or just circle-jerk and root for a specific team. 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