Press, Cambridge. 2007. New York and Oxford. Guire K.E. Presence confirmed by Morton (1990). Andrew Promaine, Resource Management Specialist, Fathom Five National Marine Park of Canada, P.O. Brinker. 54: 295-329. The U.S. Therefore, human suppression of wildfire now limits the species. Journal of the Ontario Entomological Society 141:38-67. Habitat for this species has not yet been regulated anywhere. No. Michigan Botanist 2: 99-114. Dwarf Lake Iris is a perennial, small in stature (up to 20 cm in height), with flat, strap-shaped leaves (0.5-1.0 cm wide and 6-18 cm long) that grow all in one plane, spreading somewhat like a fan (Figure 1). Historically, the species was collected as far south as Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Windsor, Ontario, but these were considered historic populations before the early 1960s (Guire and Voss 1963). A population on the east side of South Baymouth has not been seen since the 1950s. var. Conducted interviews in 1997, 2007, 2008 with community elders regarding species at risk. During her seven years of consulting experience she has undertaken a number of terrestrial and wetland vegetation surveys for government agencies, industry, and private landowners across Ontario. Venn. Joan and Walter Crowe, Bruce-Grey Plant Committee, Owen Sound Field Naturalists, Owen Sound. There are at least 40 extant populations and an estimated population size of >50 million ramets. Box 189, 248 Big Tub Road, Tobermory, ON, N0H 2R0. Presence and effectiveness of pollen vectors is likely a limiting factor (Engelken 2003). Plants are self-compatible, but natural fruit set and seed set are low. comm. New York Botanical Garden, 910 pp. The ESA will also protect the regulated habitat of the species in Ontario by June 2013 if its status remains as threatened. Family: Iridaceae . Dykes, W.R. 1913. At present, impacts from collecting appear low or negligible. Jarmo Jalava is a consulting ecologist who has been involved in species at risk (SAR) and conservation planning work in Ontario since 1978. Area is now mostly residential / cottages. Figure 4. Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats). Criterion A (Declining Total Population): Not met (insufficient information). Portions of some populations have been lost making these populations smaller than they were 15 years ago. + 2 maps. The record derives from iPlants (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name (record 322028) with original publication details: Gen. N. Amer. 49 pp plus checksheets and maps. 3 pp. 1940. Both species are polyploid (Pringle 1976) yet Crested Iris has a reported chromosome number of 2n=24, 32 and Dwarf Lake Iris 2n=32, 42 (Henderson, 2003). Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. + 2 maps. It is still possible that the species occurs elsewhere on this large island, as there is habitat that is potentially suitable. Schaefer, C. 1996. accessed March 31, 2009. Erroneous and unconfirmed records are shown in Table 3. A population near Scott Point (Bruce County) documented in a wetland evaluation is presumed extirpated by habitat alteration, but the general area may still contain some populations and is considered a potential site with unsurveyed suitable habitat (Jalava 2008a). Mason, C.T., Jr. and H.H. The threats are: shoreline development and road construction, loss of habitat from fire suppression, and trampling from ATVs, heavy machinery, pedestrians, and bicycles. Location data very vague; could be a current population known by a different name. Second, there is a record from Maiden Island off the south shore of Manitoulin Island near Michael’s Bay. and P.M. Catling. Reschke, C., R. Reid, J. Jones, T. Feeney and H. Potter. Threats unlikely. 1983. She is the author of several COSEWIC status reports and recovery strategies and sits on a number of recovery teams. Given the colonial habitat of Dwarf Lake Iris and its ability to cover large patches of ground, dispersal by ants would seem to move seeds only a very short distance relative to size of the colonies, some of which are many square kilometres in size. Dwarf Lake Iris tolerates light mowing and raking near cottages and thrives in some regularly mowed roadside ditches. Flowers sit directly on the ground, not on a stalk, and have showy blue or purple petals with orange, bearded crests. 1984. Venn, Joan, personal communication 2009. Iltis. Accessed: 2015 May 09. Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis): Not met (insufficient information). 7 (2). 12 pp. In the United States, Dwarf Lake Iris has been designated threatened and legally listed as such under the U.S. 31, Waterloo, ON. White, and C.J. Bibliography. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin. 2008b. Dwarf Lake Iris blooms from mid-May to early June. Masters Thesis, University of Guelph. Iris bracteata. Special Concern (SC)* A wildlife species that may become a threatened or an endangered species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1988. 2.0 2.1; Gikan sa gawas nga tinubdan COSEWIC (2004) estimated the total Dwarf Lake Iris population in Ontario to be approximately one million ramets, but none of the populations used to make this calculation were bigger than a few hundred square metres (Makkay 2003). 2008. The species has no specific cultural use to humans and no medicinal or cultural use is known among local Aboriginal groups. Academy of Science, Arts & Letters. Roughly 37% of the Canadian population occurs on lands under some type of protective ownership which does not include populations on private land within Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest (ANSIs). Reconnaissance Life Science Inventory of Corisande Bay Area of Natural and Scientific Interest 2006. Common names dwarf lake iris … Iris lacustris Nutt. Alvars of the Bruce Peninsula: A Consolidated Summary of Ecological Surveys. Part of the Dwarf Lake Iris population on the Wikwemikong Reserve is protected in an area that has been a protected wilderness since the mid-1980s (designated by a band council resolution). The most recent review of the American status of the species was initiated in 2007 (USFWS 2009). and C. Reschke. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? 1999. Across the Canadian range of the species, habitat is currently in all the intermediate stages from very open to nearly closed and unsuitable. Electronic databases. v + 78 pp. It is a vulnerable threatened species since 1988. appears in other Kew resources: IPNI - The International Plant Names Index. Engelken, J. Recent road and cottage development in the area impeded shoreline access. Guire, K.E. Chiltoskey, 1975. and P.M. Catling, 1972. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Publications in Botany, No. 1913. Large populations of Dwarf Lake Iris cannot constitute a single location because it is highly unlikely that a single threatening event could impact the entire area of the population, as required by the IUCN definition. The plants spread by rhizomes, often forming large colonies of shoots. These threats have been especially severe in Bruce County and in the Carter Bay and South Baymouth areas of Manitoulin Island, where the shoreline is being subdivided and habitat is being lost to cottages and second homes. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Threatened Status for Iris lacustris (Dwarf Lake Iris). Plant database entry for Species Iris (Iris lacustris) with 5 images and 5 data details. A cyto-taxonomic study of the North American species of Iris. Not at Risk (NAR)** A wildlife species that has been evaluated and found to be not at risk of extinction given the current circumstances. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions. Figure 1. Species not found. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Publications in Botany, No. Venn. See Populations Sizes and Trends and Threats and Limiting Factors sections. Patch 7.5 m², ~200 shoots, 50 flowers. Foster, R.C. The limiting factors include: inability to grow in shade; lack of insect pollinators; low genetic diversity; and low dispersal ability. obs. Species at Risk Inventory: Dwarf Lake Iris (Iris lacustris). One Bruce Peninsula occurrence is more than 10 km from the Lake Huron shore (Jalava 2008a). This process may take anywhere from 50 to several hundred years. Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible and understood and ceased? Most of the shoreline is under private ownership. A new station for the dwarf lake iris, Iris lacustris. Figure 3. Site not found. Threats resulting from human activity and natural or inherent limiting factors currently affect the survival of Dwarf Lake Iris. IRIS LACUSTRIS SEEDS (Dwarf Lake Iris) - Plant World Seeds. vi + 18 pp. American Journal of Botany 87:293-301. Dwarf Lake Iris is listed as a threatened, transition species on Schedule 4 of the Ontario Endangered Species Act (2007) (ESA). Carrington, 1996. No data on the age of plants or colonies exist, but from the size of some colonies (on the order of many square metres or even square kilometres) it is likely that at least some plants live for many decades. Habitat protection under the ESA is not yet in effect. Forests containing (or surrounding) habitat are usually dominated by Eastern White Cedar (Thuja occidentalis) or Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea). However, genetic evidence shows that at one time, both were part of a single species. and J.V. COSEWIC HistoryThe Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) was created in 1977 as a result of a recommendation at the Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference held in 1976. 2008. The spreading sepals have a white signal bordered by a deep purple color. The species may also be found under Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides), Red Pine (Pinus resinosa), Jack Pine (P. banksiana), White Pine (P. strobus) and White Spruce (Picea glauca). 2006). Eight populations of <10 m² or <1000 ramets are presumed to be in decline due to succession and shoreline development, and portions of a few extant sites are known to have been lost. Main population along paths near lakeshore - 23 patches counted, 318 m. Species not found. The number of locations is difficult to define for Dwarf Lake Iris, but with 40 extant populations and some that are more than several square kilometres in size, the number is certainly greater than 10 (the threshold for COSEWIC’s B criterion). Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? Michigan’s State Symbols (PDF, 378 KB). Endangered (E) A wildlife species facing imminent extirpation or extinction. Larson B.M.H. Keddy, eds. Although trend data are still lacking (most populations have had only one observation where abundance or areal extent was recorded), the species is certainly at a much lower level of risk than previously thought. Like Dwarf Lake Iris, Sticky False Asphodel has flat, strap-shaped leaves, and can form large colonies. Seeds are dispersed locally mainly by ants. In addition, Makkay did not visit or did not know about 25 of the 40 currently extant populations. 2005. obs. Funding for the preparation of this status report provided by the Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. A new station for the dwarf lake iris, Iris lacustris. Report from the 2007 species at risk surveys on the Wikwemikong Reserve. and S. Dumesh. 18 pp. U.S. It is unknown whether this limiting factor could be affecting populations of Dwarf Lake Iris. Iltis Iris cristata Ait. The bumble bees of southern Ontario: notes on natural history and distribution. 3, No. The committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. This population is closer to Michigan populations on Drummond Island than to the rest of the Canadian range. Prepared for Parks Canada, Peterborough, Ontario. lacustris (D. Kramb, 09-MAY-04). National Museums of Canada. It also suggested that Dwarf Lake Iris is not attractive to potential pollinators and that the amount of fruit set may be linked to the types and numbers of pollinators that are present. With extremely low genetic diversity and a restricted geographic range, the adaptability in Dwarf Lake Iris is low. Iris lacustris, the dwarf lake iris, is a plant species in the genus Iris, subgenus Limniris and in the section Lophiris (crested irises). Habitat for this species has not been regulated anywhere. A record from Cove Island from the early 1980s may also be erroneous. Insect larvae and chipmunks have been observed consuming the capsules (Makholm 1986). Iris lacustris has a sky blue to deep blue to violet flower. Threatened and Endangered Species System. Plants are self-compatible, but natural fruit set and seed set are still low (Hannan and Orick 2000). comm. Not accessible by land. Average age is difficult to measure even from rhizome nodes because rhizomes fork frequently and criss-cross underground. 2009). At many sites only a few ramets or small patches of ramets are left because habitat has closed in or become overgrown. Self-pollination is more common than cross-pollination and results in a higher fruit set, but seed set was about half that of available ovules (Planisek 1983). Wildfire has likely played an important role in creating habitat. Summary for Iris lacustris in Rare Species Explorer (Web Application). Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Midhurst District, Midhurst, Ontario. SARA provides protection for plants of Dwarf Lake Iris on federal lands (National Parks, Department of Defence lands, First Nations, etc.). Dwarf Lake Iris is a small perennial plant with flat, strap-shaped leaves that grow all in one plane. White, and Keddy, C.J., eds. Jalava. At many sites Jones and Jalava (pers. Jalava, J.V. Dwarf Lake Iris in flower (photo: Judith Jones). This is especially true where the surrounding habitat has become too shaded or overgrown. Therefore, for a definitive identification, it is recommended to survey either in early June when the iris is in flower, or in mid-July to mid-August when the vertical, sticky stems and white flowers or reddish fruits of Sticky False Asphodel are present. comm. A resource management study of rare vascular plants of the Tobermory Islands unit, Georgian Bay Islands National Park. The authors are grateful for the ongoing support of this agency. Species not found. NatureServe. Applications are now being served for the iPhone, iTouch & iPad on the iTunes App Store. Wujek. The Flora of Canada, Part 2, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae, Monocotyledoneae. Dwarf Lake Iris is currently estimated to have a population of more than 50 million ramets and is much more widespread than previously reported. The extent of occurrence (EO) for this species is 8,232 km². Waterloo, Ontario. comm. Dwarf Lake Iris (Iris lacustris) (4719617999).jpg 3,872 × 2,592; 3.57 MB The abundance of Dwarf Lake Iris in open woodlands of Jack Pine and Red Pine (both largely fire-dependent species) and in areas of Manitoulin Island known to have burned (Jones 2007, 2008 unpublished data; Flamand 2007 unpublished data), suggests that wildfire has played a role in creating habitat. It also reduces the ability for the species as a whole to adapt to long-term environmental change. If in the park, not extensive. The genetic data suggests a recent evolutionary origin for Dwarf Lake Iris. . Even the most western populations at Belanger Bay on Manitoulin Island are >50 km from the nearest populations on Drummond Island, with barriers of open water, and unsuitable habitat on Cockburn Island intervening. No collections were examined for this updated report. In Canada, Dwarf Lake Iris is only found in Ontario (Figure 4). Vol. Global range of Dwarf Lake Iris, Figure 4. Available on-line at http://www.fws.gov/endangered/wildlife.html; Accessed April 22, 2009. COSEWIC Mandate The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) determines the national status of wild species, subspecies, varieties, and nationally significant populations that are considered to be at risk in Canada. Projected or suspected percent reduction (or increase) in total number of mature individuals over the next 10 years, or 3 generations. 245 pp. Flowers lack stalks and are enveloped at the base of the leaves (unlike the common Northern Blue Flag (Iris versicolor) where the flowers are on tall stalks). Range of occurrence in Canada (province/territory/ocean): Ontario. Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario, Fourth Edition. Noble, T.W. Venn. COSEWIC Status Report on the Dwarf Lake Iris Iris lacustris in Canada - 2010. Figure 2. The Michigan Botanist (44) 1 pp 13-27. Threats unlikely. Chittenden, E.M. 1995. Four parts. Flowers are 3-5 cm wide with three petal-like sepals and three showy petals with orange, bearded crests lying partly beneath small petal-like style branches. Simonich, M.T. M.Sc. Toth, Norah, personal communication 2009. 3, No. Frank G. Burrows, Resource Management Specialist, Bruce Peninsula National Park of Canada, Fathom Five National Marine Park of Canada, P.O. All suitable habitat for Dwarf Lake Iris was surveyed (Jones 2007). Ottawa. Crispin, and P.J. 1984. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (p. 41). COSEWIC. Dwarf Lake Iris is a small perennial plant with flat, strap-shaped leaves that grow all in one plane. Box 7000, 300 Water Street, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 8M5. Judith Jones B.S., M.S., has been an independent biological consultant since 1995. michiganensis) Endangered Pitcher’s thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) Threatened In low light or high moisture situations, flowering, fruit, and shoot density decline (Van Kley and Wujek 1993; Engelkin 2003). Michigan Botanist 23: 68. The extent of occurrence for this species has increased from 382 km² to a current 8232 km². The plant is conspicuous and showy when in flower and became the Michigan state wildflower in 1998 (Michigan Natural History Magazine 2002). The species has very low genetic diversity. xi + 29 pp. In these situations, the number of ramets may run into the tens of millions. Map not Available. In Ontario, Dwarf Lake Iris is also ranked vulnerable (S3) (Oldham and Brinker 2009). The species as a whole is genetically depauperate, perhaps due to founder effects resulting from repeated population extinction and recolonization events. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Area is residential; some surviving populations may exist in yards. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1988. Dwarf Lake Iris is endemic to the Great Lakes region, and populations in Ontario, Michigan, and Wisconsin comprise the entire global range. American Journal of Botany 87:293-301. Jones (2006) surveyed Girouard Point and found no iris in this area and all potential habitat was overgrown. The Canadian population could make up as much as 30% of the global distribution, based on numbers of populations known globally (40 out of a global total of 135). Cronquist, A. Heavy machinery use is a moderate threat to some of the Manitoulin Island First Nation populations, and ATV use is a threat to those populations as well as to some non-park Bruce Peninsula populations. Dwarf Lake Iris has been successfully propagated at the W.J. This site was listed in COSEWIC (2004) but not surveyed. Scientific Name: Iris L. (Iridaceae) lacustris Nutt. and E.G. Average age of individuals and generation time are unknown, but given the size of some colonies, it can be speculated that some plants live for decades. These populations may be extirpated as they have not been relocated in more than 20 years despite recent survey work (Schaefer 1996; Jalava 2008a). Apparent intolerance to high levels of sunlight may represent sensitivity to drought (COSEWIC 2004). More Iris Photos. Survey work (Jones 2008a) confirmed there are no Dwarf Lake Iris and no suitable habitat on Maiden Island itself. v + 64 pp. It is closely related to Iris cristata (another North American crested iris). Argus, G.W., K.M. In the absence of fire or other ecological processes, the natural, long-term trend in the habitat is for vegetation cover to increase, the canopy to close, and for conditions to become unsuitable for Dwarf Lake Iris. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Click here to review or comment on the identification. 17 pp. 16 pp. accessed by Makkay, October 2002. SARA establishes COSEWIC as an advisory body ensuring that species will continue to be assessed under a rigorous and independent scientific process. Dwarf lake iris is most likely to be confused with On Manitoulin Island, nearly all of the south shore of the island has been surveyed as part of more than seven different projects mapping alvars and species at risk (Reschke et al. Part of the Dwarf Lake Iris population on the Wikwemikong Reserve is in an area that has been a protected wilderness since the mid-1980s (designated by a band council resolution). Growing with bearberry and, 11 patches found around the northeast end of park; 118 m, Abundant throughout park. Michigan Botanist 15: 157–163. University of Waterloo Biology Series Number 40. Existing Protection or Other Status Designations, Acknowledgements and Authorities Contacted, Également disponible en français sous le titre Évaluation et Rapport de situation du, http://www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca/sar/assessment/status_e.cfm, http://www.cpp.msu.edu/etposter/etposter.htm, 3 patches found E of private cottage area. The recovery strategy (Jalava 2008b) has been posted on the SARA Public Registry, which identifies critical habitat. 1996-2009) suggest little evidence of browsing. Box 189, 248 Big Tub Road, Tobermory, ON, N0H 2R0. and M.U. COSEWIC Membership COSEWIC comprises representatives from each provincial and territorial government wildlife agency, four federal agencies (Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Federal Biosystematic Partnership), three nonjurisdictional members and the co-chairs of the species specialist groups. Michigan Botanist 22: 93-102. If most ramets in very large colonies are clones of one genetic individual, then even with flowering, pollination, and seed set there may be a low potential for outcrossing. The species has never been reported as common south of Bruce County as no other historic reports south of that area exist (Guire and Voss 1963; COSEWIC 2004). Dwarf Lake Iris is endemic to the Great Lakes basin and is restricted to the northern shores of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron (Figure 3). comm. 2006. Habitat and ecology of Iris lacustris (dwarf lake iris). The difficulty of controlling ATV use makes it a serious concern, even though there may be some localized benefits (see next). COSEWIC (2010) defines a mature individual as follows: “reproducing units within a clone should be counted as individual, except where such units are unable to survive alone.” Thus, ramets are considered mature individuals. 1972. Road and cottage development occurring around the bay. The lack of insect pollinators is presented here as a potential limitation that may prevent the species from possibly being more widespread or more resistant to habitat damage. Distributions of distinctive shoreline plants in the Great Lakes region. Several colonies documented in recent surveys are on the order of hectares, square kilometres, or in linear strips many kilometres in length. In Canada, it grows on alvars and dolostone bedrock shorelines, on relict sand or gravel beach ridges, and in calcareous soils in openings in coniferous woodlands and along woodland edges. Jones, J.A. Contributions of the Grey Herbarium, Harvard University, 119: 1-82. Availability and effectiveness of insect pollinators may be an inherent limiting factor for Dwarf Lake Iris. It has lavender blue or violet-blue flowers, a very short stem and long fan-like green leaves. Published on the internet. 188 pp. Jones, J.A. In all three habitats, control flowers had less than 5% fruit set. other small populations may persist in this area around private cottages, Not found in any recent surveys. Hannan G.L. Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario. Unpublished database submitted to Parks Canada and Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre. and M.W. In recent survey work, Jones (2008a) found extensive patches of Sticky False Asphodel filling almost all habitat suitable for Dwarf Lake Iris, and no Dwarf Lake Iris. Shorelines, but Natural fruit set and seed set are still low Hannan! 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