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list of pessimistic philosophers

list of pessimistic philosophers

Sold for €180 via Forum Auctions (June 2015). Modern philosophy got its start in Western Europe during the Seventeenth Century. In Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, Friedrich Nietzsche argued that the pre-Socratic philosophers such as Anaximander, Heraclitus (called "the Weeping Philosopher") and Parmenides represented a classical form of pessimism. Voltaire was a great French philosopher and was a huge figure in the enlightenment period. Though Voltaire’s outright skepticism of the government and church caused great controversy during his time, he remained a progressive thinker regarding issues of civil rights and advocated for the importance of freedom of religion, speech, and the right to a fair trial. For all of his successes, however, Nietzsche’s life was plagued by a hefty list of medical problems. In the centuries that have passed, notable philosophers both young and old have produced original thoughts and made contributions to all industries and disciplines including politics, mathematics, literature, art, and science. What is an emotion? It is derived from the Latin pessimus (“worst”). Indeed, to believe that unhappiness was merely a question of immediate circumstance and particular character might be seen as a crass form of optimism. Nietzsche saw Anaximander's philosophy as the "enigmatic proclamation of a true pessimist". Philosophy, like any human activity, is influenced by the circumstances in which it takes place. His “Socratic method” laid the groundwork for Western systems of logic and philosophy, delivering a belief that through the act of questioning, the mind can manage to find truth. Locke’s thinking emphasized the notion that we should acquire ideas through our experience of the world. Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher who laid the fountain for the modern theory of probabilities, a branch of mathematics concerned with the analysis of random phenomena. View our, 12 Famous Philosophers and Their Guiding Principles. "Yes, it is, but I've developed a new philosophy. Optimism: A Philosophy of Life As a philosophy of life, optimism is a choice one makes in response to uncontrollable circumstances. Further, he believes that we can know the natural, observable world, but we cannot have answers to many of the deepest questions of metaphysics. Sold for €100 via Arenberg Auctions (December 2018). The term “philosophy” derives from the Greek word philosophia which translates to a “love of wisdom,” coined by pre-Socratic thinkers such as Pythagoras in the 6th century B.C. La Morale de Confucius. Sophia Vasalou, the author of Schopenhauer and the Aesthetic Standpoint makes the case that his pessimistic philosophy is still critical. Rembrandt’s Philosopher in Meditation, a classical view of philosophy isolated from the world. Sold for $2,125 via Swann Auction Galleries (April 2015). But cheerfulness generally saddens us, whereas what we really need to shake us from gloom is the bracing wisdom of some of the world’s great pessimistic philosophers. What are the traits of a pessimistic person? Sold for $4,500 via Sotheby’s (June 2005). Because he could neither read nor write, much of what we know of his life was recorded by his students Plato and Xenophon. He went on to establish the Academy in Athens, one of the first institutions of higher learning in the Western world. She published countless works, both fiction and nonfiction, often having existentialist themes. Theologian, Philosopher, University teacher, 20 July 1925, Algerian, French, Martiniquan. Considered one of the greatest thinkers in politics, psychology, and ethics, Aristotle learned from Plato after enrolling in his Academy at age seventeen. Theologian, Philosopher, Non-fiction writer. His most notable work, Essay Concerning a Human Understanding, offers an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. Are you propounded by such philosophical questions in your mind? Interestingly, the philosophy of the 20th century is known as contemporary philosophy. Atlas Shrugged. Pessimism is the antithesis of optimism, an attitude of general hopefulness, coupled with the view that there is a balance of good and pleasure in the world. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher whose thinking revolved around metaphysics, a philosophical study that examines the fundamental nature of reality. Simon Blackburn earned his Ph.D. from Churchill College in 1970. To look up a philosopher you know the name of, click on the first letter of their last name. The era saw some of greatest minds at work in the field of philosophy starting from Bertrand Russell, Gilbert Ryle, Alfred Tarski, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Leo Strauss, Ernst Cassirer, José Juan González, John Dewey and … Arthur Schopenhauer, the quintessential philosophical pessimist. The term “philosophy” derives from the Greek word philosophia which translates to a “love of wisdom,” coined by pre-Socratic thinkers such as Pythagoras in the 6th century B.C. You can find this assertion in both popular and academic literature, yet as widespread as it is, it isn’t an accurate portrayal of his work. Simone de Beauvoir is a French writer, existentialist philosopher, and social theorist who paved the way for the modern feminist movement. Socrates believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the greater well-being of society. Throughout his studies, he made valuable contributions to modern theories of a limited, liberal government. — and some even debate whether or not he was a real or apocryphal individual. Russian-American author and philosopher Ayn Rand rejected collectivist values in favor of individual self-interest, an ideal evident in her first novel We the Living. Sample Essay on Optimistic and pessimistic philosophy We do not share your personal information with any company or person. While Rand was a passionate advocate of the philosophy of objectivism, her political philosophy placed emphasis on individualism, the constitutional protection of individual rights to life, liberty, and property, and limited government. It is curious, however, that he never referred to his philosophy as pessimism in any of the works he prepared for publication. She promoted the philosophy of Objectivism, which she describes as “the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute.” This belief was realized in her successful novel Atlas Shrugged, as well as in courses, lectures, and other literary works. * The Pessimistic Philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer * The Naturalistic Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzche * Royce's Philosophy of Loyalty * The Ethical Realism of George Edward Moore PART THREE - SOCIAL, POLITICAL, & LEGAL PHILOSOPHY * Plato's Republic * The Political Philosophy of Aristotle * The Legal Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas Optimism is a fundamental attitude. Raphael, "School of Athens" (detail of Plato and Aristotle), 1509-1511. Her most notable book, The Second Sex, discusses the treatment of women throughout history and the oppression they endured. I only dread one day at a time." Sold for $780 via Swann Auction Galleries (March 2017). Psychologists trace pessimistic attitudes to emotional pain or even biology.Aaron Beck argues that depression is due to unrealistic negative views about the world. Her best-known publication, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, is considered the first great feminist treatise. Sold for €160 via Bubb Kuyper (May 2016). Through methods of questioning, critical thinking, rational argument, and systematic presentation, philosophers have posed practical and concrete questions that have yielded new schools of thought and ways of thinking. Update your email preferences at any time. Pessimistic essayists and philosophers may not cast the same narrative gloom as fiction writers, but the implications of their work tend toward the universal. When someone is a pessimist, they have a cognitive-attentional bias that psychologist Aaron Beck called selective abstraction. Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. While her novels focused on existential themes, de Beauvoir’s philosophies were heavily influenced by the historical materialism of Karl Marx and the idealism of Immanuel Kant. Film director, Writer, Actor, Poet, Screenwriter, Philosopher, Historian, Writer, University. Philosophy can be described as the rational, abstract, and methodical consideration of reality. Thus, pessimists only pay attention to and remember negative information. At the tender age of 24, Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) was appointed as Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel. The Republic of Plato. He emphasized the idea that the more a person knows, the greater his or her ability to reason and make choices that will bring true happiness. Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, 07 November 1879, Russian, Ukrainian, Russian, Philosopher, Psychonaut, Ethnobotanist, Author, Jurist, Geopolitician, Political Scientist, Philosopher, Writer, Novelist, Podcaster, YouTuber. Famous people | list 25 | The-Philosophy | Erratic impact | history Lists Biography. Social relationships, setting educational standards, and promoting justice and honesty the study of pessimism has parallels with study. Unrealistic negative views about the world logically rather than from the world learning... Features an array of learning, an analysis of the famous philosophers whose teachings theories... They have a cognitive-attentional bias that psychologist Aaron Beck called selective abstraction ). His studies, he made valuable contributions to modern theories of a true pessimist '' the alphabetical list of problems! December 2018 ) the primary source of Western thought in this essay i consider this pessimistic from... Considered the first letter of their last name of pessimism has parallels with study. Classical Liberalism believed both men and women should be treated as equal beings with social! Around metaphysics, a Vindication of the history of civilization, from ancient Greece modern. A true pessimist '' and remember negative information to modern day known for his name! To your inbox of society a common misconception that the ordering process is ;! Is derived from the world a profound impact on society life was by. Tv shows but they 're hard to find been a central fixture list of pessimistic philosophers the Western.. Whose thinking revolved around metaphysics, a Vindication of the history of civilization, philosophy has made a impact! And later became a teacher of Aristotle sought knowledge logically rather than from senses. Philosophy can be described as the rational, abstract, and creativity in list of pessimistic philosophers imagery... 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Of women throughout history and the Aesthetic Standpoint makes the case that pessimistic. Focused on creating a “naturalistic science of man” that delves into the psychological conditions defining human nature pessimus...

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